ISSN 2398-2985      

Injection site reactions

4ferrets

Introduction

  • All injections carry a risk of introducing infection and resulting in inflammation.
  • Causes:
    • Inappropriate disinfection prior to injection.
    • Poor injection technique.
    • Site of injection that is predisposed to reactions.
    • Repeated injections at the same time leading to inflammation.
    • Reaction to vaccine preservative.
  • Signs:
    • A swelling developing at the site of injection within a few hours to a few days.
  • Diagnosis:
    • Based on clinical signs where a history of an injection is present.
    • Fine needle aspirate where a mass has developed.
    • Biopsy upon excision of a mass.
  • Treatment: dependent on severity of signs:
    • In mild cases medical treatment may be sufficient.
    • Ongoing monitoring where a possible mass is not causing discomfort.
  • Prognosis: good to guarded depending on location.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Post-injection inflammatory reaction.
  • Repeat injections of the same site.
  • Use of irritant injectable solutions, eg enrofloxacin Enrofloxacin.
  • Use of high volumes and thick injectable solutions in a small space.
  • Poor injection Drug administration techniques technique.
  • Poor disinfection technique.

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • Evidence suggests that some ferrets may develop injection site fibrosarcomas similarly to cats.

Timecourse

  • Usually necrosis or abscessation will take place within a few days of injection.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Munday J S, Stedman N L & Richey L J (2003) Histology and immunohistochemistry of seven ferret vaccination-site fibrosarcomas. Vet Pathol 40 (3), 288-293 PubMed.

 

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