ISSN 2398-2977      

Respiratory: exploratory surgery

pequis

Introduction

  • To visually or palpably assess components of the respiratory tract as a means of facilitating diagnosis or management of disease and injury after all other means have been used.

Uses

  • The proliferation of endoscopic Respiratory: endoscopy and advanced imaging techniques including radiographic, ultrasonographic, scintigraphic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic resonance imaging has curtailed the need for purely exploratory respiratory surgery.
  • Even 3D imaging techniques (CT, MRI) may not identify the specific diagnosis. Evaluation and biopsy or surgical debridement may be diagnostic and therapeutic, especially in paranasal sinus surgery.
  • Principal indications are the exclusion or confirmation of presumptive diagnosis.
  • The paranasal sinuses remain the most common surgically explored respiratory structures, although the nasal meati, pharynx, larynx and thoracic cavity occasionally require surgical exploration.

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Predisposes to potentially serious complications, eg hemorrhage, damage to critical underlying structures, pneumothorax Pneumothorax.
  • Surgery of the respiratory tract implies a clean-contaminated environment and hence the potential for wound infection.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Depends on primary reason for surgery.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Byrne C A & Barakzai S Z (2020) Equine emergency upper airway management. Equine Vet Ed 32 (6), 325-334 VetMedResource.
  • Cramp P A, Prange T & Nickels F A (2014) Standing equine surgery of the upper respiratory tract. Vet Clin Equine Pract 30 (1), 111-141 PubMed.
  • Dixon P M, Parkin T D, Collins N et al (2012) Equine paranasal sinus disease: a long-term study of 200 cases (1997–2009): treatments and long-term results of treatments. Equine Vet J 44 (3), 272-276 PubMed.
  • Ahern B J & Parente E J (2008) Surgical complications of the equine upper respiratory tract. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 24 (3), 465-484 PubMed.
  • Beard W L & Waxman S (2007) Evidence-based equine upper respiratory surgery. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 23 (2), 229-242 PubMed.
  • Barakzai, S, Tremaine H & Dixon P (2006) Use of scintigraphy for diagnosis of equine paranasal sinus disorders. Vet Surg 35 (1), 94-101 PubMed.
  • Peroni J F, Horner N T, Robinson N E & Stick J A (2001) Equine thoracoscopy: normal anatomy and surgical technique. Equine Vet J 33 (3), 231-237 PubMed.
  • Arencibia A, Vázquez J M, Jaber R et al (2000) Magnetic resonance imaging and cross sectional anatomy of the normal equine sinuses and nasal passages. Vet Radiol Ultra 41 (4), 313-319 PubMed.
  • Peroni J F, Robinson N E, Stick J A & Derksen F J (2000) Pleuropulmonary and cardiovascular consequences of thoracoscopy performed in healthy standing horses. Equine Vet J 32 (4), 280-286 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins J F (2014) Ed. Advances in equine upper respiratory surgery. John Wiley & Sons, USA.

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