ISSN 2398-2977      

Reproduction: breeding assessment examination - stallion

pequis

Synonym(s): Breeding fitness, Breeding soundness, Fertility assessment


Introduction

  • To determine if a stallion can reasonably be capable of rendering at least 75% of 40 or more mares pregnant when bred naturally, or 120 mares when bred artificially, in one breeding season with reasonable mare management and fertility.
  • Determining the probability of a male (stallion) not likely to be infertile. Importantly the breeding assessment of the stallion (male) is not designed to predict fertility, but rather decrease the likelihood of infertility.
  • A more rational definition would be, to determine the likelihood of a stallion to obtain at least a 60% per cycle pregnancy rate at first pregnancy diagnosis scan, assuming normal mare fertility and good management.

Uses

Advantages

  • Pre-season breeding assessment.
  • To assess the likelihood of a young or first season stallion not being infertile.
  • To assess why a stallion might be infertile or sub-fertile.
  • Assessing abnormal reproductive behavior.
  • To determine the presence of a pathogenic organism in the reproductive tract.
  • As part of a pre-purchase and or examination for insurance purposes.
Breeding soundness exams do not form part of a routine five stage pre-purchase examination.
  • To determine the likely size of his seasonal breeding ‘book’.

Disadvantages

  • The reported correlation between many in vitro fertility parameters and pregnancy outcomes (fertility) are typically considered modest.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Whitesell K, Stefanovski D, McDonnell S & Turner R (2020) Evaluation of the effect of laboratory methods on semen analysis and breeding soundness examination (BSE) classification in stallions. Theriogenology 142, 67-76 PubMed.
  • Driessen B, Zarucco L, Kalir B & Bertolotti L (2011) Contemporary use of acepromazine in the anaesthetic management of male horses and ponies: a retrospective study and opinion poll. Equine Vet J 43 (1), 88-98 PubMed.
  • McDonnell S M (2007) Starting a novice breeding stallion. Clin Tech Equine Pract 6 (4), 232-238 PubMed.
  • Colenbrander B, Gadella B M & Stout T A (2003) The predictive value of semen analysis in the evaluation of stallion fertility. Reprod Domest Anim 38 (4), 305-311 PubMed.
  • Nie G J & Pope K C (1997) Persistent penile prolapse associated with acute blood loss and acepromazine maleate administration in a horse. JAVMA 211 (5), 587-589 PubMed.
  • Colenbrander B, Puyk H, Zandee A R & Parlevliet J (1992) Evaluation of the stallion for breeding. Acta Vet Scand Suppl 88, 29-37 PubMed.
  • Hurtgen J P (1992) Evaluation of the stallion for breeding soundness. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 8 (1), 149-165 PubMed.
  • McDonnell S M, Garcia M C & Kenney R M (1987) Pharmacological manipulation of sexual behaviour in stallions. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 35, 45-49 PubMed.
  • Kenney R M et al (1983) Theriogenology and the equine Part II The stallion. J Soc Theriogenology 9, 1-100.

Other sources of information

  • McDonnell S M (2011) Normal Sexual Behavior. In: Equine Reproduction. Eds: McKinnon A O, Squires E L, Vaala W E & Varner D D. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. pp 1385-1390.
  • McKinnon A O et al (2011) Equine Reproduction. Hoboken, Wiley & Sons, USA. The appropriate chapters in volume 1 of this text book will clarify and further enhance the understanding and reasoning for many parts of the stallion breeding assessment examination.
  • Squires E L (2011) Reproductive Parameters from Light Horse Stallions. In: Equine Reproduction. Eds: McKinnon A O, Squires E L, Vaala W E & Varner D D. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 1367-1376.
  • Squires E L & Pickett B W (2011) Factors Affecting Sperm Production. In: Equine Reproduction. Eds: McKinnon A O, Squires E L, Vaala W E & Varner D D. Wiley Blackwell, UK. pp 1344-1361.

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