ISSN 2398-2977      

Nose: nasal flushing

pequis

Synonym(s): Nasal cavity flushing


Introduction

  • Transendoscopic lavage may allow for resolution of inspissated pus and better visualization of nasal passages, especially if lavage is pressurized.
  • May be performed alone or in conjunction with paranasal sinus centesis Paranasal sinus: percutaneous centesis if rhinitis and sinusitis are present.

Uses

  • To irrigate nasal cavity and remove foreign bodies.
  • To treat specific disorders such as:
  • Flushing via trephine sites in paranasal sinuses (frontal or caudal maximally) can be effective, especially if sinuses are involved also.
  • Sinus infections (primary or secondary, although secondary sinusitis also necessitates treatment of the primary condition).

Advantages

  • Often effective.
  • Safe.
  • Cheap.

Disadvantages

  • Resented by most horses.
  • Heavy sedation required.
  • Sinus trephination is invasive.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Dependent on primary condition.
  • Secondary sinusitis is rarely resolved with flushing alone.
  • Flushing to treat primary sinusitis or rhinitis may be the only treatment necessary, however, inspissated pus collected especially in the dorsal or ventral chonchal sinuses often requires removal by fenestration due to dependent position of rostral border.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dixon P M, Kennedy R, Poll K, Barakzai S & Reardon, R J M (2020) A long-term study of sinoscopic treatment of equine paranasal sinus disease: 155 cases (2012-2019). Equine Vet J PubMed.
  • Perkins J D, Windley Z, Dixon P M, Smith M & Barakzai S Z (2009) Sinoscopic treatment of rostral maxillary and ventral conchal sinusitis in 60 horses. Vet Surg 38 (5), 613-619 PubMed.
  • Tremaine W H & Dixon P M (2001) A long-term study of 277 cases of equine sinonasal disease. Part 2: treatments and results of treatments. Equine Vet J 33 (3), 283-289 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Nickels F A (2012) Nasal Passages and Paranasal Sinuses. In: Equine Surgery. 4th edn. Eds: Auer J A & Stick J A. W B Saunders, USA. pp 557-568. 
  • Tremaine W H & Freeman D E (2007) Disorders of the Paranasal Sinuses. In: Equine Respiratory Medicine and Surgery. Saunders Elsevier, USA. pp 403-404.

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