ISSN 2398-2977      

Musculoskeletal: manipulative tests

pequis

Introduction

  • Adjunctive tests to accompany gait evaluation Musculoskeletal: gait evaluation.
  • Flexion, extension and other manipulative techniques place stress or strain on joints and soft tissue structures.
  • Assessment of the response to manipulative tests can aid localization of the site of pain, although manipulative tests are generally considered to be non-specific.
  • Stress or strain may elicit a pain response, and exacerbate or induce lameness.
  • The degree of movement in a joint or joints may be limited by a pathologic process, for example fibrosis associated with chronic degenerative joint disease.
  • A lack of response does not preclude pain causing lameness or poor performance.

Uses

Advantages

  • Non-invasive.
  • Simple routine tests performed without special equipment.
  • Can aid in the identification and localization of pain causing lameness.

Disadvantages

  • Subjective tests - responses maybe inconsistent.
  • Flexion tests can induce lameness that is of no clinical significance i.e. false-positive result.
  • A negative result does not preclude pain causing lameness in the tested region.
  • These tests are generally non-specific and should be used in conjunction with a full gait assessment and other diagnostic procedures such as diagnostic analgesia.
  • Manipulation of fracture sites may cause further soft tissue damage and complicate fracture management, eg by converting an open to a closed fracture Musculoskeletal: fracture.
Performing manipulative tests on a fractious horse can be dangerous and must be done with care.

Requirements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Procedure

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dyson S & Greve L (2016) Subjective gait assessment of 57 Sports Horses in normal work: A comparison of the response to flexion tests, movement in hand, on the lunge, and ridden. J Equine Vet Sci 38, 1-7 VetMedResource.
  • Armentrout A R, Beard W L, White B J & Lillich J D (2012) A comparative study of proximal hindlimb flexion in horses: 5 versus 60 seconds. Equine Vet J 44 (4), 420-424 PubMed.
  • Starke S D, Willems E, Head M, May S A & Pfau T (2012) Proximal hindlimb flexion in the horse: Effect on movement symmetry and imiplications for defining soundness. Equine Vet J 44 (6), 657-663 PubMed.
  • Kearney C M et al (2010) Which anatomical region determines a positive flexion test of the distal aspect of a forelimb in a nonlame horse? Equine Vet J 42 (6), 547-551 PubMed.
  • Busschers E & Van Weeren P R (2001) Use of the flexion test of the distal forelimb in the sound horse: repeatability and effect of age, gender, weight, height and fetlock joint range of motion. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 48 (7), 413-427 PubMed.
  • Meijer M C, Busschers E & Van Weeren P R (2001) Which joint is most important for the positive outcome of a flexion test of the distal forelimb of a sound horse? Equine Vet Educ 13 (6), 319-323 VetMedResource.
  • Keg P R, VanWeeren P R, Back W & Barneveld A (1997) Influence of the force applied and its period of application on the outcome of the flexion test of the distal forelimb of the horse. Vet Rec 141 (18), 463-466 PubMed.
  • Verschooten F & Verbeeck J (1997) Flexion test of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints and flexion angle of the metacarpophalangeal joint in sound horses. Equine Vet J 29 (1), 50-54 PubMed.
  • Adams S B & Belvins W E (1989) Shoulder lameness in horses - Part I. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 11 (1), 64-70 VetMedResource.
  • Adams S B & Blevins W E (1989) Shoulder lameness in horses - Part II. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 11 (2), 190-196 VetMedResource.
  • May S A & Wyn-Jones G (1987) Identification of hindleg lameness. Equine Vet J 19 (3), 185-188 PubMed.
  • Dyson S (1986) Diagnostic techniques in the investigation of shoulder lameness. Equine Vet J 18 (1), 25-28 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ross M W (2010) Manipulation. In: Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse. 2nd edn. Eds: Ross M W & Dyson S J. Elsevier, USA. pp 80-88.

Related Images

RELATED CONTENT

Accessory carpal: fracture

Anesthesia: standing chemical restraint

Annular ligament: constriction

Bone: osteochondrosis

Bone: scintigraphy

Carpal joint: disease - overview

Carpus: fracture - chip

Carpus: fracture - comminuted

Carpus: fracture - slab

Carpus: osteochondroma

Carpus: sheath tenosynovitis

Common digital extensor tendon: rupture

Coxofemoral joint: disease - overview

Deep digital flexor tendon: tendinitis

Digital sheath: tenosynovitis

DIP joint: disease - overview

Distal phalanx: fractures

Elbow: osteoarthritis

Foot / shoe: examination

Foot: contracted heels

Foot: lateral cartilage calcification (sidebone)

Foot: sole bruising

Foot: subsolar abscess/infection

Forelimb: joint anesthesia

Forelimb: perineural analgesia

Forelimb: radiography

Gastrocnemius tendinitis

Hindlimb: joint anesthesia

Hindlimb: perineural analgesia

Hindlimb: radiography

Humerus: fracture

Joint: septic arthritis - adult

MC / MT 3: fracture - condylar

MC/MT 3: fracture

MCP / MTP joint: chronic proliferative synovitis

MCP / MTP joint: developmental orthopedic diseases

MCP / MTP joint: disease - overview

MCP/MTP joint: luxation

Middle phalanx: fracture

Muscle: myopathy - fibrotic

Musculoskeletal: fracture

Musculoskeletal: gait evaluation

Musculoskeletal: osteoarthritis (joint disease)

Musculoskeletal: physical examination - adult

Musculoskeletal: physiotherapy

Musculoskeletal: rectal palpation

Patella: upward fixation

Peroneus tertius: rupture

PIP joint: diseases - overview

PIP joint: luxation

PIP joint: osteoarthritis

Pre-purchase examination (UK)

Proximal phalanx: fracture

Proximal sesamoid: fracture

Radius: fracture

Reproduction: breeding assessment examination - mare

Sacrum: fracture

Scapula: fracture

Scapula: fracture - supraglenoid tubercle

Spine: coccygeal - trauma

Spine: spinous processes - overriding

Stifle: femoropatellar osteochondrosis

Stifle: femorotibial subchondral bone cyst

Stifle: trauma - cruciate ligament

Stifle: trauma - meniscal

Straight sesamoidean ligament: desmitis

Synovial fluid: collection

Tarsus: distal tarsal bone fracture / luxation

Tarsus: fracture

Thermography

Tibia: fracture - malleolar

Tibia: fracture - tibial crest

Ulna: fracture

Ultrasonography: musculoskeletal

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code