ISSN 2398-2977      

Head: frontal facial fractures - repair

pequis

Introduction

  • Cause: fractures result from direct trauma such as a kick or impact Head: frontal facial fractures; usually open and comminuted.
  • Owners may be very distressed by the visual appearance of the injury.
  • Signs: fractures are often associated with substantial soft tissue defects but these usually respond well to treatment; rarely life-threatening unless damage to the calvarium has occurred.
  • Treatment: repair of the fractures is not urgent; initial therapy involves stabilization of the patient and protection of exposed structures.
  • Fracture of these bones can result in trauma to the eye, sinuses, zygomatic process, nasal passages, nasolacrimal duct and cranial nerves.
  • The aim of surgical repair is preservation of the local anatomy, avoidance of infection, and a good cosmetic outcome.
  • Good local blood supply and minimal strain on implants aid the successful treatment.
  • Prognosis:
    • Can be good if all anatomical involvement is taken into consideration at the time of surgery.
    • Better for return to function than for cosmetic outcome but cosmetic outcome is usually acceptable.

Uses

Advantages

  • Rarely a life-threatening injury.

Disadvantages

  • Often substantial soft tissue defects leaving exposed bone.
  • The exposed bone should be covered immediately with adjacent skin or moist bandages to help maintain its viability.

Requirements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Procedure

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Aftercare

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prognosis

  • Good if all anatomical involvement is taken into consideration at the time of surgery.
  • Prognosis is better for return to function than for cosmetic outcome but cosmetic outcome is usually acceptable.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gerding J C, Clode A, Gilger B C & Montgomery K W (2014) Equine orbital fractures: a review of 18 cases (2006-2013). Vet Ophthalmol 17 (1), 97-106 PubMed.
  • Dunkel B, Corley K T, Johnson A L et al (2013) Pneumocephalus in five horses. Equine Vet J 45 (3), 367-71 PubMed.
  • Dowling B A, Dart A J & Trope G (2001) Surgical repair of skull fractures in four horses using cuttable bone plates. Aust Vet J 79 (5), 324-327 PubMed.
  • Bohanon T C & Gabel A A (1991) Cosmetic repair of a facial deformity by use of a silicone implant in a horse. JAVMA 198 (11), 1957-1958 PubMed.
  • Caron J P et al (1986) Periorbital skull fractures in five horses. JAVMA 188 (3), 280-284 PubMed.
  • Valdez H & Rook J S (1981) Use of fluorocarbon polymer and carbon fiber for restoration of facial contour in a horse. JAVMA 178 (3), 249-252 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Auer J A & Stick J A (1999) Ed. Equine Surgery. 2nd edn. W B Saunders, USA.
  • Nixon A J (1996) Ed. Equine Fracture Repair. W B Saunders, USA.

Related Images

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code