ISSN 2398-2977      

Eye: examination - direct ophthalmoscopy - close

pequis

Introduction

Uses

Advantages

  • Readily available and portable.
  • Direct image.
  • Magnification of 7.9-8.4 times gives increased detail.
  • Allows focusing for depth.

Disadvantages

  • Purchase and care of ophthalmoscope.
  • Limited field of view due to high magnification.

Requirements

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Procedure

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Krohne S G (1995) Equine eye examination techiniques. Equine Pract 17 (9), 8-14 VetMedResource.
  • Cooley P L (1992) Normal equine ocular anatomy and eye examination. Vet Clin N A Equine Pract (3), 427-449 PubMed.
  • Crispin S M, Matthews A G and Parker J (1990) The equine fundus I. Examination, embryology, structure and function. Equine Vet J 10, 42-49 PubMed.
  • Matthews A G, Crispin S M and Parker J (1990) The equine fundus II. Normal anatomical variants and colobomata. Equine Vet J 10, 50-54 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brooks D E (1999) Equine Ophthalmology. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology. Ed: Gelatt K N. 3rd edn. 1053-1116.

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