ISSN 2398-2977      

Carfentanil

pequis

Synonym(s): Carfentanyl, R-33799


Introduction

Name

  • Carfentanil citrate.

Class of drug

  • µ-receptor agonist.
  • Opioid analgesic.
  • Highly potent fentanyl derivative; reported to be 8000-10,000 times more potent than morphine   Morphine  .
  • Schedule 2 controlled drug; DEA Schedule II controlled substance.

Description

Chemical name

  • (methyl 4-(1-oxopropyl)phenylamino-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidine carboxylate-2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate).

Molecular formula

  • C26 H32 N2 O7 .

Molecular weight

  • 394.5 g.

Physical properties

  • Clear, odorless, aqueous solution for injection.
  • Available as a 3 mg/ml solution in a 10 ml multi-dose vial.

Storage requirements

  • Store at room temperature.

Controlled drug and therefore must be stored in accordance with legislative guidance.

Uses

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Indications

  • Use for immobilization or sedation of wild or free-ranging equines.
  • Suitable for projectile dart administration.
  • High potency means only small volumes are required.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Synergism occurs with other drugs that depress the CNS, potentially reducing the dose of carfentanil required.
  • Muscle relaxants or short-acting anesthetics may need to be administered concurrently and re-dosed at appropriate intervals to maintain or improve muscle relaxation. Muscle rigidity is often seen after administration of carfentanil.
  • Combinations and supplemental drugs used with carfentanil include:
    • Grevy's zebras: detomidine   Detomidine hydrochloride   150 mg/kg were initially administered IM via dart, followed by carfentanil 0.0098 mg/kg and ketamine   Ketamine hydrochloride   2 mg/kg once sedation has been achieved. Additional ketamine 0.5 mg/kg IV was given to reduce muscle rigidity.
    • Wild horses: carfentanil 0.017 mg/kg and xylazine   Xylazine   0.6 mg/kg IM administered simultaneously.
    • Zebras: guaifenesin   Guaifenesin   2-10 g IV or propofol   Propofol   100-300 mg IV.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • George A Vet al (2010) Carfentanil an ultra potent opioid. Am J Emerg Med 28 (4), 530 PubMed.
  • Shaw M et al (1995) Complication with the use of carfentanil citrate and xylazine hydrochloride to immobilize domestic horses. JAVMA 206 (6), 833-836 PubMed.
  • Allen J L (1994) Immobilization of Hartmanns mountain zebras (Equuus zebra hartmannae) with carfentanil and antagonism with naltrexone or nalmefene. J Zoo Wildl Med 25, 205-208.
  • Caulkett N A et al (1994) Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine-ketamine immobilization with atipamezole reversal with carfentail-xylazine immobilization with naltrexone reversal: a comparative study in domestic sheep (Ovis ovis). J Zoo Wildlife Med 25 (3), 376-389.
  • Allen J L (1992) Immobilization of Mongolian wild horses (Equus przewalskii przewalskii) with carfentanil and antagonism with naltrexone. J Zoo Wildl Med 23, 422-425.
  • Haig J C (1990) Opioids in zoological medicine. J Zoo Wildlife Med 21 (4), 391-413.
  • Jessup D A et al (1985) Immobilization of free-ranging desert bighorn sheep, tule elk, and wild horses, using carfentail and xylazine: reversal with naloxone, diprenorphine, and yohimbine. JAVMA 187 (11), 1251-1253 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • West G, Heard D & Caulkett N (2007) Eds. Zoo Animal & Wildlife Immobilization and Anaesthesia. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN: 978-0813825663.
  • Allen J L (1997) Anesthesia of non-domestic horses with carfentanil and antagonism with naltrexone. In: Proc AAZV. pp 126.
  • Klein L et al (1995) Comparison of detomidine/carfentanil/ketamine and medetomidine/ketamine anaesthesia in Grevys zebra. In: Proc AAZV/WDA/AAWV. pp 290-293.
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