ISSN 2398-2977      

Benzylpenicillin

pequis

Synonym(s): Penicillin G


Introduction

Name

  • Penicillin G.

Class of drug

Description

Chemical name

  • [2S-(2-alpha,5-alpha,6-beta)]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-6-[(phenylacetyl)amino]-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid.

Molecular formula

  • C16H18N2O4S.

Molecular weight

  • 356.4.

Physical properties

  • Sterile powder.
  • Sterile, aqueous suspension.

Storage requirements

  • Powder:
    • 20-25°C/68-77°F.
  • Sterile constituted solution is stable for 7 days when kept refrigerated (2-8°C/35.6-46.4°F), and for 24 h at room temperature.
  • Suspension:
    • Between 2-8°C/35.6-46.4°F.
    • Do not store in freezer.
    • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Penicillin is the antimicrobial of choice for many diseases such as Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus and Streptococcus equi subsp equi (“Strangles” Strangles (Streptococcus equi infection)) and anaerobic infections, eg clostridial myositis Musculoskeletal: clostridial myositis.
  • The intravenous formulations are used when high doses are necessary to get adequate concentrations at the site of infection in life-threatening situations.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • May be synergistic with aminoglycosides, as penicillin-induced disruption of the bacterial cell wall may permit increased uptake of the aminoglycoside.
  • May be antagonistic with bacteriostatic antimicrobials, eg tetracyclines Therapeutics: tetracyclines, as rapidly dividing cells are required for penicillin’s antimicrobial action.

with diagnostic tests

  • Can cause falsely elevated serum uric acid values if the copper-chelate method is used. Phosphotungstate and uricase methods are not affected.
  • May cause false-positive urine glucose determinations when using cupric-sulfate solution. Tests utilizing glucose oxidase are not affected.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Younkin J T, Santschi E M, Kukanich B et al (2019) Evaluation of plasma concentration after intravenous and intramuscular penicillin administration over 24 hr in healthy adult horses. J Vet Pharmacol Thera 42 (2), 239-242 PubMed.
  • Olsen L, Ingvast-Larsson C, Brostrom H et al (2007) Clinical signs and etiology of adverse reactions to procaine benzylpenicillin and sodium/potassium benzylpenicillin in horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30 (3), 201-207 PubMed.
  • Uboh C E, Soma L R, Luo Y, McNamara E et al (2000) Pharmacokinetics of penicillin G procaine versus penicillin G potassium and procaine hydrochloride in horses. Am J Vet Res 61 (7), 811-815 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D C (2018) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. Wiley Blackwell, USA. Website: www.app.plumbs.com.
  • Cole C, Bentz B & Maxwell L (2014) Equine Pharmacology. Wiley Blackwell, USA.
  • Giguère S, Prescott J F & Dowling P M (2013) Eds Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. 5th edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA.
  • National Office of Animal Health Compendium (NOAH) Datasheets of Licensed Veterinary Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) Adverse Reaction Reporting. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Website: www.fda.gov.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) Product Information Database. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.
  • US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) FDA Regulation of Animal Drugs. Website: www.fda.gov.

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