ISSN 2398-2977      

Head: frontal facial fractures

pequis

Introduction

  • Cause: fractures result from direct trauma such as a kick or other impact; usually open and comminuted.
  • Owners are often very distressed by the visual appearance of the injury.
  • Signs: fractures are often associated with substantial soft tissue defects but these usually respond well to treatment; rarely life-threatening unless damage to the calvarium has occurred.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, radiography, endoscopy, neurological and ophthalmological examinations. 
  • Treatment: repair of the fractures is not urgent; initial therapy involves stabilization of the patient and protection of exposed structures.
  • Fracture of these bones can result in trauma to the eye, sinuses, zygomatic process, nasal passages, nasolacrimal duct and cranial nerves.
  • Prognosis:
    • Can be good if all anatomical involvement is taken into consideration at the time of assessment.
    • Prognosis is better for return to function than for cosmetic outcome, but cosmetic outcome is usually acceptable.

Presenting signs

  • Facial swelling with or without wounds.

Acute presentation

  • Evidence of trauma, swelling, and commonly wounds.
  • Patient may have evidence of brain involvement:
    • Alterations in mentation.
    • Cranial nerve deficits.
    • Unable/difficulty rising.
    • Ataxia.

Cost considerations

  • Severity of injury.
  • Brain involvement.
  • Severity of neurologic signs if present.
  • Value of horse.

Special risks

  • Considerable anesthetic risk if traumatic brain injury.
  • Anesthetic recovery risk of fracture repair failure or worsening of original fracture.

Pathogenesis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gerding J C, Clode A, Gilger B C & Montgomery K W (2014) Equine orbital fractures: a review of 18 cases (2006-2013). Vet Ophthal 17 Suppl 1, 97-106 PubMed.
  • Dunkel B, Corley K T, Johnson A L et al (2013) Pneumocephalus in five horses. Equine Vet J 45 (3), 367-371 PubMed.
  • Dowling B A, Dart A J & Trope G (2001) Surgical repair of skull fractures in four horses using cuttable bone plates. Aust Vet J 79 (5), 324-327 PubMed.
  • Ramirez O 3rd, Jorgensen J S & Thrall D E (1998) Imaging basilar skull fractures in the horse: a review. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 39 (5), 391-395 PubMed.
  • Ragle C A (1993) Head trauma. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9 (1), 171-178 PubMed.
  • Caron J P et al (1986) Periorbital skull fractures in five horses. JAVMA 188 (3), 280-284 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Auer J A & Stick J A (1999) Ed. Equine Surgery. 2nd edn. W B Saunders, USA.
  • Nixon A J (1996) Ed. Equine Fracture Repair. W B Saunders, USA.

Related Images

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code