Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Anesthesia: regional - head

Synonym(s): Nerve blocks of the head

Contributor(s): David Bardell, Mark Senior

Introduction

  • Many procedures can be performed without the need for a general anesthetic if effective local nerve blocks are combined with adequate sedation   Anesthesia: standing chemical restraint  .
  • Local anesthetic   Anesthesia: local - overview  techniques should also be utilized as an adjunct to general anesthesia   Anesthesia: general - overview  .
  • Thorough ocular examination is easier to carry out if akinesia of the eyelids is achieved.
  • Many of the relevant nerves are superficial and easily palpated so aiding accurate placement of local anesthetic.
  • Aseptic technique should be observed.

Care should be taken to avoid direct damage to nerves from needle placement.

Local anesthetics

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Peri-orbital blocks

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Dental and muzzle blocks

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed and VetMedResource.
  • O'Neill H D, Garcia-Pereira F L & Mohankumar P S (2014)Ultrasound-guided injection of the maxillary nerve in the horse. Equine Vet J46(2), 180-184PubMed
  • Michou J & Leece E (2012)Sedation and analgesia in the standing horse 2. Local anaesthesia and analgesia techniques. In Pract34(10), 578-587VetMedResource.
  • Bardell D, Iff I & Mosing M (2010)A cadaver study comparing two approaches to perform a maxillary nerve block in the horse. Equine Vet J42(8), 721-725PubMed
  • Pearce S G, Kerr C L, Boure L P et al(2003)Comparison of the retrobulbar and Peterson nerve block techniques via magnetic resonance imaging in bovine cadavers. JAVMA6, 852-855PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fletcher B W (2004)How to Perform Effective Equine Dental Nerve Blocks. In: Proc 50th AAEP Convention.
  • Budras K D, Sack W O & Rock S (2003)Anatomy of the Horse an Illustrated Text. 4th edn. Schlutersche. pp 32-45.
  • Gilger B C & Davidson M G (2002)How to Prepare for Ocular Surgery in the Standing Horse. In: Proc AAEP.48, pp 266-271.
  • Hall L W & Clarke K W (1996)Veterinary Anesthesia. 9th edn. W B Saunders.
  • Muir W W & Hubbell J A E (1991)Local Anesthetics and Local Anesthetic techniques in Horses. In: Equine Anesthesia Monitoring and Emergency Therapy. Mosby Year Book.
  • Sissons S & Grossman J D (1953)Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. 4th edn. W B Saunders.


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