ISSN 2398-2977      

Spine: deformity

pequis

Synonym(s): Swayback, roach back, wry neck


Introduction

  • Cause: congenital (acquiredin uteroor genetic), acquired.
  • Signs: dystocia in mare, deviation of skull, spine, limb deformities.
  • Diagnosis: visual assessment, radiography   Spine: radiography  .
  • Treatment: none.
  • Prognosis: depends on severity and other malformations.
  • See also Spine: occipitoatlantoaxial malformation   Spine: occipitoatlantoaxial malformation  .

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Fetal malposition (scoliosis, torticollis).
  • Genetic defect (occipitoatlantoaxial malformations).
  • Chronic strain of spinal ligaments due to multiple pregnancies (acquired lordosis).

Predisposing factors

General
  • Breed.

Specific

  • Primiparous mare (scoliosis, torticollis).

Pathophysiology

  • Malposition of head and neck during gestation   →   forced reflected posture and fixed position against firm body part   →   muscle contracture and possibly ankylosis of spine.
  • Causes of malposition may include immature uterus failing to expand to accommodate growing and moving fetus.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rendle D I, Durham A E, Bestbier M et al (2008) Neurenteric cyst with associated butterfly vertebrae in a seven-month-old colt. Vet Rec 162 (17), 558-561 PubMed.
  • Vandeplassche M et al (1984) Etiology and pathogenesis of congenital torticollis and head scoliosis in the equine fetus. Equine Vet J 16 (5), 419-424 PubMed.

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