ISSN 2398-2977      

Pharynx: neoplasia

pequis
Contributor(s):

Anna Hollis

Timothy Mair

Synonym(s): Pharyngeal neoplasia


Introduction

  • Neoplasia of the pharynx is infrequently diagnosed in the horse.
  • Primary pharyngeal neoplasms are very rare.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly reported tumor. Lymphoma, mast cell tumor, chondroma, neuroendocrine tumor, fibrosarcoma and melanoma have also been reported.
  • Cause: most neoplastic conditions of the pharynx arise by extension from neoplasia of adjacent structures such as the oral cavity and sinus.
  • Signs: relate to size and location of tumor. May cause space-occupying effects within the airway, uni- or bilateral nasal discharge, respiratory noise, dysphagia.
  • Diagnosis: endoscopy, occasionally oral examination, biopsy.
  • Treatment: benign, local masses may be removed surgically, or via diathermy or laser excision/ablation. Malignant masses have limited options; occasionally intralesional chemotherapy may allow local control. Radiotherapy may be a potential treatment depending on the location of the lesion, but has very limited availability and is very expensive.
  • Prognosis: guarded, unless complete surgical excision is possible.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Squamous cell carcionoma is the most common tumor of the pharynx, and solitary lymphomas have also been reported.
  • Other tumors at this location are very rare.

Timecourse

  • Usually a gradual onset of clinical signs, but signs may not become apparent until late in the course of the disease.
  • If an oronasal fistula develops, progression to an ingesta-stained nasal discharge may be rapid.
  • Often present with a very large and untreatable mass; extensive infiltration of surrounding tissues and lymphatics may occur even if the mass itself appears to be well localized.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Garrett K S (2012) Advances in diagnostic imaging of the larynx and pharynx. Equine Vet Educ 24 (1), 17-18 VetMedResource.
  • Jakesova V, Konar M, Gerber V, Brachelente H J & Tessier C (2008) Magnetic resonance imaging features of an extranodal T cell rich B cell lymphoma in the pharyngeal mucosa in a horse. Equine Vet Educ 20 (6), 289-293 VetMedResource.
  • Tyler R J & Fox R I (2003) Nasopharyngeal amelanotic melanoma in a gelding age 9 years. Equine Vet Educ 15 (1), 19-26 VetMedResource.
  • Kelly D (2003) Diagnostic problems in nasopharyngeal malignant amelanotic melanomas. Equine Vet Educ 15 (1), 25 WileyOnline.
  • Sullivan E K & Parente E J (2003) Disorders of the pharynx. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 19 (1), 157-267 VetMedResource.
  • Adams R, Calderwood-Mays M B & Peyton L C (1988) Malignant lymphoma in three horses with ulcerative pharyngitis. JAVMA 193 (6), 674-676 PubMed.
  • Lane J G (1985) Palatine lymphosarcoma in two horses. Equine Vet J 17 (6), 465-467 PubMed.
  • Schuh J C L (1983) Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral, pharyngeal and nasal mucosa in the horse. Vet Pathol 23 (2), 205-207 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Knottenbelt D C, Patterson-Kane J C & Snalune K L (2015) Clinical Equine Oncology. Elsevier, UK.

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