ISSN 2398-2977      

Penis: trauma

pequis

Introduction

  • Abrasions and lacerations of the penis are relatively common in stallions.
  • Cause: often occurs during mating.
  • Signs: wounds usually superficial; often considerable hemorrhage.
  • Diagnosis: history; clinical signs.
  • Treatment: primary repair may be necessary.
  • Prognosis: fair to good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma during mating:
    • Sudden movement of mare.
    • Kick from mare Penis: trauma 04 - kick hematomaPenis: trauma 01 - lateral viewPenis: trauma 02 - caudal view.
    • Tail hairs caught in vulva Penis: trauma 05 - intromission  tail hairs.
    • Vulval sutures.
    • Attempting to mate across a fence.
  • Trauma from improperly constructed or poorly maintained artificial vagina Urethra: traumaor from rubbing against breeding phantom / poorly constructed or poorly maintained breeding phantom.
  • Trauma at times other than mating.
  • Whipping.
  • Fighting.
  • Falls over jumps.
  • Secondary to paraphimosis Penis: paraphimosis and penile paralysis.
  • Complication of castration Testis: castration - post-operative complications.
  • Inguinal lacerations.
  • Improperly fitted stallion ring (fitting of such devices has been largely discontinued and is not acceptable on welfare grounds).

Predisposing factors

General

  • Erect penis is particularly susceptible to injury.

Pathophysiology

  • Trauma, usually during mating when penis is erect and exposed → laceration/abrasion to penis.
  • Trauma → lacerations or abrasions → often superficial, involving considerable hemorrhage from plexus of veins outside tunica albuginea → blood in ejaculate (hemospermia Semen: hemosemen).
  • May also involve cavernous spaces or urethra, or rupture of tunica albuginea.
  • Wounds which extend into the cavernous tissue can cause severe haemorhage.
  • Wounds which extend into the urethra may cause damage to surrounding tissues if urine leaks into them.
  • Superficial wounds if properly treated heal without complication.
  • If primary closure required and not undertaken can → suppuration, cellulitis and generalized swelling → fibrosis → may prevent horse either extending free end of penis or withdrawing free end back into prepuce (paraphimosis Penis: paraphimosis).
  • Unsutured wounds into the cavernous spaces can result in the creation of shunts between cavernous spaces.
  • Urethral lacerations generally heal without stricture by secondary intention if longitudinal but transecting types can lead to stenosis or fistulae.
  • If penile and preputial wounds become infected, spread of infection into the surrounding tissues is common due to the loose nature of preputial alveolar tissue.

Timecourse

  • Acute onset.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Beltaire K A, Tanco V M & Bedford-Guaus S J (2011) Theriogenology question of the month. Trauma-induced paraphimosis. JAVMA 238 (2), 161-4 PubMed
  • Riggs E (1996) Diagnosis and treatment of penile conditions in horses. In Practice 18, 488-495 VetMedResource.
  • Perkins N S & Frazer G S (1994) Reproductive emergencies in the stallion. Vet Clin N Amer Equine Pract 10, 671-683 PubMed.
  • Schumacher J & Vaughan J T (1988) Surgery of the penis and prepuce. Vet Clin North Am Eqine Pract (3), 473-491 PubMed.
  • Pascoe R R (1971) Rupture of the corpus cavernosum penis of a stallion. Aust Vet J 47 (12), 610-11 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Schumacher J & Varner D D (2011) Abnormalities of the Penis and Prepuce. In: Equine Reproduction. Eds: McKinnon A O, Squires E L, Vaala W E & Varner D D. Wiley Blackwell, UK. pp 1130-1143.

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