ISSN 2398-2977      

Paranasal sinus: cyst

pequis

Introduction

  • Benign but progressively expansive lesion - single or multiple loculated cavities in maxillary or frontal sinus; cavity has an epithelial lining and contains fluid.
  • Cause: developmental causes have been suggested such as abnormal tooth root development; congenital, or acquired such as submucosal hemorrhage.
  • Signs: facial distortion, nasal discharge.
  • Diagnosis: respiratory system exam, drainage by trephination, radiography, computed tomography, endoscopy.
  • Treatment: cyst removal.
  • Prognosis: generally curative if entire cyst is removed.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.
  • Some development and acquired predisposing factors have been suggested.

Predisposing factors

Developmental

  • Draft breed Irish draft.
  • Abnormal tooth root development.

Acquired

  • Progressive ethmoidal hematoma.
  • Submucosal hemorrhage.

Pathophysiology

  • Respiratory cyst lining exudes characteristic amber fluid that causes outward and inward bony distortion resulting in facial distortion and impingement on sinus and lacrimal outflow, ocular structures, dental structures, the infraorbital canal, and the nasal passage.

Timecourse

  • Unknown, although significant facial distortion has been reported in young horses <6 months.

Epidemiology

  • May be overrepresented in draft horses.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ostrowska J, Lindström L, Tóth T, Hansson K, Uhlhorn M & Ley C J (2020) Computed tomography characteristics of equine paranasal sinus cysts. Equine Vet J 52 (4), 538-546 PubMed.
  • Fenner M F, Verwilghen D, Townsend N et al (2019) Paranasal sinus cysts in the horse: Complications related to their presence and surgical treatment in 37 cases. Equine Vet J 51 (1), 57-63 PubMed.
  • Barakzai S (2011) Clinical refresher: equine sinus cyst. UK Vet 16 (2), 4-6 VetMedResource.
  • Woodford N S & Lane J G (2006) Long-term retrospective study of 52 horses with sinunasal cysts. Equine Vet J 38 (3), 198-202 PubMed.
  • Perkins J & Barakzai S (2005) The equine paranasal sinuses - Part 4. UK Vet 10 (5), 5-8 Scribd.
  • Beard W L & Hardy J (2001) Diagnosis of conditions of the paranasal sinuses in the horse. Equine Vet Educ 13 (5), 265-273 VetMedResource.
  • Tremaine W H, Clarke C J & Dixon P M (1999) Histopathological findings in equine sinonasal disorders. Equine Vet J 31 (4), 296-303 PubMed.
  • Ruggles A J et al (1993) Endoscopic examination and treatment of paranasal sinus disease in 16 horses. Vet Surg 22 (6), 508-514 PubMed.
  • Trotter G W (1993) Paranasal sinuses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract (1), 153-169 PubMed.
  • Freeman et al (1990) A large frontonasal bone flap for sinus surgery in the horse. Vet Surg 19 (2), 122-130 PubMed.
  • Beard W L et al (1990) Bilateral congenital cysts in the frontal sinuses of a horse. JAVMA 196 (3), 453-453 PubMed.
  • Lane J G et al (1987) Equine paranasal sinus cysts: a report of 15 cases. Equine Vet J 19 (6), 537-544 PubMed.
  • Lane J G et al (1987) Radiographic examination of the facial, nasal, and paranasal sinus regions of the horse - 1. Indications and procedures in 235 cases. Equine Vet J 19 (5), 466-473 PubMed.
  • Boles C (1979) Abnormalities of the upper respiratory tract. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract (1), 89-111 PubMed.
  • Cannon J H et al (1976) Diagnosis and surgical treatment of cyst-like lesions of the equine paranasal sinuses. JAVMA 169 (6), 610-613 PubMed.

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