ISSN 2398-2977      

Mouth: ulcers

pequis

Synonym(s): Oral ulceration, stomatitis, vesicles


Introduction

  • Disruptions in the integrity of the oral mucosa.
  • Cause: infectious, toxic, caustic, traumatic, neoplasia. 
  • Signs: ptyalism, inappetence/anorexia, visible ulcers/vesicles/bullae/crusts.
  • Diagnosis: physical and oral examination, other procedures dependent on inciting cause.
  • Treatment: dependent on inciting cause.
  • Prognosis: dependent on inciting cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Variable, depending on inciting cause.

Viral

  • Virus invades mucosal epithelium producing vesicles which rupture to leave ulcers.

Phenylbutazone  Phenylbutazone 

  • Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis    →   ?vasoconstriction of microvasculature of GI mucosa    →   ischemia    →   ulcer formation.

Cantharidin

  • ?interference with mitochondrial oxidative enzymes    →   cell membrane damage    →   acantholysis + vesicle formation    →   ulcers.

Chemical

  • Direct action of the chemical on the oral mucosa    →   chemical burn    →   mucosal slough    →   ulceration.

Food impaction

  • Can   →   infected food material    →   infected + abrased oral mucosa    →    ulceration.

Direct trauma

  • Can   →    abrasion and ulceration.
  • Excessively long or broken teeth   Teeth: fracture  .
  • Sharp foreign bodies in feedstuff.

Timecourse

  • Dependent on inciting cause.

Epidemiology

  • Cases with viral causes may be part of a contagious epidemic, eg vesicular stomatitis   Vesicular stomatitis  .
  • Chemical/toxin induced ulcers may affect several animals in the same paddock, eg contaminated water trough, infested grazing.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Johnson P J et al (2012) Ulcerative glossitis and gingivitis associated with foxtail grass awn irritation in two horses. Equine Vet Educ 24 (4), 182-186 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Mair T, Divers T & Ducharme N (2002) Manual of Equine Gastroenterology. W B Saunders.
  • Brown C M & Bertone J J (2002) The 5-Minute Veterinary Consult Equine. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

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