ISSN 2398-2977      

Kidney: polycystic disease

pequis

Synonym(s): Polycystic kidney disease, PKD, PCKD


Introduction

  • Polycystic kidney disease (PCKD) is an uncommon condition.
  • The disease is similar to autosomal dominant PCKD in humans and PCKD in Persian cats, being characterized by the progressive development of renal compromise manifesting in middle to old age. 
  • Multiple bilateral cysts develop in the kidneys resulting in variable clinical signs including renal failure, nephromegaly and in some instances hematuria and colic.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.
  • The disease in humans results from mutations in genes PKD-1 and PKD-2 which ultimately results in the formation of tubule derived cysts by mechanisms which are as yet unclear.

Too few cases have been reported in equines to establish any etiological factors.

Predisposing factors

General
  • None recognized.

Pathophysiology

  • Chronic renal failure results from the progressive development of cysts, which ultimately destroy normal renal architecture and function.
  • Cysts develop bilaterally and progress to destroy renal tissue.
  • Large cysts develop which result in nephromegaly.
  • The cysts often contain fluid and in some cases hemorrhage resulting in hematuria   Urine: hematuria  .

Timecourse

  • The disease becomes evident when the cysts destroy sufficient renal tissue to result in renal failure and is a disease of adulthood.
  • The youngest reported equine case is 9 years, with the oldest 24 years.
  • Some cases survive into old age because the severity of the disease is less.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chandler K J, Johnston H M & Murphy D M (2003) Polycystic kidney disease in an aged pony. Vet Rec 153 (24), 754-756 PubMed.
  • Aguilera-Tejero E, Estepa J C, Lopez I, Bas S & Rodriguez M (2000) Polycystic kidneys as a cause of chronic renal failure and secondary hypoparathyroidism in a horse. Equine Vet J 32, 167-169 PubMed.
  • Bertone J J et al (1987) Monitoring the progression of renal failure in a horse with polycystic kidney disease - use of the reciprocal of serum creatinine concentration and sodium sulfanilate clearance half-time. JAVMA 191, 565-568 PubMed.
  • Ramsay G, Rothwell T L W, Gibson K T, Moore J D & Rose R J (1987) Polycystic kidneys in an adult horse. Equine Vet J 19, 243-244 PubMed.
  • Scott P C & Vasey J (1986) Progressive polycystic renal disease in an aged horse. Aust Vet J 63, 92-93 PubMed.

Organisation(s)

  • The Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

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