ISSN 2398-2977      

Hypoproteinemia

pequis

Introduction

  • Hypoproteinemia (low serum total protein concentration) may result from hypoalbuminemia and/or hypoglobulinemia.
  • Cause: decreased intake, decreased production, increased metabolism, or increased loss, of protein.
  • Signs: edema, signs associated with the underlying cause.
  • Diagnosis: serum biochemistry and protein electrophoresis.
  • Treatment: supportive therapy, diet, and specific treatment for cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Decreased intake or production/increased metabolism or loss   →   decreased serum albumin and/or globulin   →   low plasma osmotic pressure   →   fluid passes into tissue spaces or serous cavities   →   edema.

Timecourse

  • Usually due to chronic underlying condition.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kaikkonen R et al (2014) Diagnostic evaluation and short-term outcome as indicators of long-term prognosis in horses with findings suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease treated with corticosteroids and anthelmintics. Acta Vet Scand 56, 35 PubMed.
  • Page A E, Slovis N M & Horohov D W (2014) Lawsonia intracellularis and equine proliferative enteropathy. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 30 (3), 641-658 PubMed.
  • Metcalfe L V et al (2013) A retrospective study of horses investigated for weight loss despite a good appetite (2002-2011). Equine Vet J 45 (3), 340-345 PubMed.
  • Pusterla N & Gebhart C J (2013) Equine proliferative enteropathy a review of recent developments. Equine Vet J 19 (3), 344-347 PubMed.
  • Jones P A et al (2001) Effect of hydroxyethyl starch infusion on colloid oncotic pressure in hypoproteinemic horses. JAVMA 218 (7), 1130-1135 PubMed.
  • Pusterla N et al (2001) Acute hemoperitoneum in horses: a review of 19 cases (1992-2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 218 (7),1130-1135 PubMed
  • Parraga M E, Carlson G P & Thurmond M (1995) Serum protein concentrations in horses with severe liver disease - a retrospective study and review of the literature. J Vet Int Med 9 (3), 154-161 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Frape D (2004) Equine Nutrition and Feeding. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK. ISBN: 1405105984.

Related Images

RELATED ARTICLES

Abdomen: peritonitis

Abdomen: uroperitoneum

Blood: biochemistry - albumin

Blood: biochemistry - aspartate amino transferase (AST)

Blood: biochemistry - bile acids

Blood: biochemistry - creatinine

Blood: biochemistry - gamma globulins

Blood: biochemistry - gamma glutamyl transferase (gGT)

Blood: biochemistry - sorbitol dehydrogenase

Blood: biochemistry - total bilirubin

Blood: biochemistry - total protein

Blood: biochemistry - urea

Blood: hemorrhage - acute/chronic

Blood: packed cell volume (PCV)

Blood: transfusion

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease

Colon: colitis

Colon: inflammation - right dorsal

Cyathostomins: small strongyles

Dermatitis: solar

Diarrhea: idiopathic

Fluid therapy: diarrhea

Fluid therapy: overview

Foal: failure of passive transfer (IgG)

Gastrointestinal: clostridiosis

Gastrointestinal: intestinal function tests

Gastrointestinal: neoplasia

Heart: examination - overview

Hyponatremia

Intestine: enteritis

Intestine: salmonellosis

Kidney: disease - overview

Kidney: glomerulonephritis

Kidney: renal failure

Lawsonia intracellularis

Liver disease: overview

Liver: fasciola hepatica infestation

Liver: hepatitis - chronic active

Liver: hepatoencephalopathy

Liver: icterus

Lung: pleuropneumonia - bacterial (pleuritis)

Lymphoproliferative disorders

Mycotoxicosis

Nutrition: brood mare

Nutrition: growth

Nutrition: protein

Nutrition: sick horse

Nutrition: work

Polydipsia / polyuria

Protein-losing conditions

Strongyle infestation: large

Strongyloides westeri infection

Therapeutics: antimicrobials

Toxicity: anticoagulant rodenticide

Toxicity: mercury

Urine: protein

Vasculitis

Weight loss: overview

Wound: healing - factors

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