ISSN 2398-2977      

Conjunctivitis: allergic

pequis

Introduction

  • Cause: allergic conjunctival reactions arise from direct topical application of various substances, exposure to pollen or erosol-borne sprays.
  • Site: many cases are bilaterally affected, sometimes with systemic signs.
  • Signs: irritant-induced conjunctivitis is clinically indistinguishable in many cases.
  • Diagnosis: immunologic testing and conjunctival cytology.
  • Treatment: topical and systemic antihistamines and/or corticosteroids can be helpful; environmental control is usually best long-term management solution.
  • Prognosis: guarded - identification of causal agents is difficult.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Pollens of a variety of plants.
  • Direct application of topical proprietary and non-proprietary ophthalmic preparations.
  • In stabled animals - dust and environmental pollutants.

Pathophysiology

  • Allergic conjunctival reactions can arise from the direct topical application of various substances or the exposure to pollen and erosol-borne sprays.
  • Exposure to plant allergens may be accompanied by systemic allergic reactions.
  • Irritant-induced conjunctivitis is often indistinguishable from allergic conjunctivitis and is related to dust, environmental pollutants or applied chemical substances.
  • True allergic responses are usually bilateral and often accompanied by upper respiratory tract and/or systemic signs - particularly following exposure to pollens and other foreign antigens amnestically.
  • Irritant-induced responses to dust or environmental pollutants are also bilateral, but usually the systemic signs are limited - absent or lower grade upper respiratory tract signs.

Differentiation between an allergic or irritant response in a horse where preparations have been applied to an eye is often difficult and, from a clinical standpoint, rather academic.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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