ISSN 2398-2977      

Amyloidosis

pequis

Synonym(s): Cutaneous amyloidosis, immunocytic amyloidosis, immunogenic amyloidosis, primary amyloidosis


Introduction

  • Cause: multiple causes, including chronic antigenic stimulation, neoplasia, infectious diseases.
  • Signs: in the skin papules, nodules and plaques are found. If respiratory signs are present, they include epistaxis, and difficulty breathing.
  • Diagnosis: by cytology and histopathologic examination of biopsy samples.
  • Treatment: no effective treatment for horses with multiple lesions.
  • Prognosis: varies on extent and severity of the lesion.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • In the systemic form it is proposed that chronic infection and antigenic stimulation    →   deposition of amyloid fibrils (AA amyloid) by macrophages. In this case the fibrils are produced from serum ±-globulin.
  • In the organ specific form it is proposed that allergens may   →   deposition of amyloid fibrils (AL amyloid). These fibrils are formed by monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Chronic infection/antigenic/allergenic stimulation.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • See etiology.

Timecourse

  • Variable from few weeks to months.

Epidemiology

  • Rare disease.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Archer D (2008) Differential diagnosis of epistaxis in the horse. In Pract 30 (1), 20-29 VetMedResource.
  • Kim D Y, Taylor H W, Eades S C & Cho D Y (2005) Systemic AL amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma in a horse. Vet Pathol 42 (1), 81-84 PubMed.
  • Nout Y S, Hinchcliff K W, Bonagura J D, Meurs K M & Papenfuss T L (2003) Cardiac amyloidosis in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 17 (4), 588-592 PubMed.
  • Linke R P, Geisel O & Mann K (1991) Equine cutaneous amyloidosis derived from an immunoglobulin lambda-light chain. Immunohistochemical, immunochemical and chemical results. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 372 (9), 835-843 PubMed.
  • van Andel A C, Gruys E,  Kroneman J & Veerkamp J (1988) Amyloid in the horse: a report of nine cases. Equine Vet J 20 (4), 277-285 PubMed.
  • Gliatto J M & Alroy J (1975) Cutaneous amyloidosis in a horse with lymphoma. Vet Rec 137 (3), 68-69 PubMed
  • Stunzi H, Ehrensperger F, Wild P & Leemann W (1975) Systemic cutaneous and subcutaneous amyloidosis in the horse. Vet Pathol 12 (5-6), 405-414 PubMed.

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