Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Tracheoscopy

Contributor(s): Philip Lhermette, Elise Robertson

Introduction

Uses

  • Allows direct visualization of the lumen and mucosa of the trachea.
  • Facilitates collection of respiratory samples:
  • Therapeutic intervention:
  • Investigation of:
    • Acute or chronic cough.
    • Hemoptysis.
    • Stridor not explained by laryngoscopic findings.
    • Confirmation and staging of tracheal collapse Trachea: collapse Tracheoscopy: Grade II tracheal collapse Tracheoscopy: Grade IV tracheal collapse.
    • Assessment of airway integrity.
    • Staging of chronic bronchitis Chronic bronchitis including the presence and degree of airway collapse.
    • Chronic halitosis.
    • Neoplastic conditions Trachea: neoplasia.

Advantages

  • Allows quick and non-invasive assessment of tracheal anatomy.
  • Can detect dynamic diseases such as tracheal collapse missed by other techniques (including fluoroscopy).
  • Direct visualization and removal of foreign bodies.

Disadvantages

  • Some foreign bodies are difficult to retrieve and require more invasive techniques for removal.
  • Will not detect visual pathology beneath airway mucosa.

Procedure

  • Very quick procedure (2-5 minutes).

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Creevy K E (2009) Airway Evaluation and Flexible Endoscopic Procedures in Dogs and Cats: Laryngoscopy, Transtracheal Wash, Tracheobronchoscopy, and Bronchoalveolar Lavage. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 39 (5), 869-880 PubMed.
  • Noone K E (2001) Rhinoscopy, Pharyngoscopy, and Laryngoscopy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 31 (4) , 671-689 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Padrid P A (2011) Laryngoscopy and Tracheobronchoscopy of the Dog and Cat. In: Tams T R, Rawlings C A (eds) Small Animal Endoscopy, St Louis, 2011, Elsevier Mosby.
  • Levitan D, Kimmel S (2008) Flexible endoscopy: respiratory tract. In :Lhermette P, Sobel D (eds)BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Endoscopy and Endosurgery, Quedgeley, British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


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