Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Stenotic nares enlargement

Synonym(s): Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome (BAOS, Airway obstruction syndrome

Contributor(s): Andrew Gardiner, Geraldine Hunt, Lori Ludwig, Gert ter Haar

Introduction

  • Surgical enlargement of the nares and nasal vestibule by excision of a portion of the dorsolateral nasal cartilage and ventral ala Nares 03 - stenotic bilateral.

Uses

Advantages

  • The procedure is relatively easy to perform and complications are minimal.
  • Most animals show significant improvement after surgery.

Disadvantages

  • Animals require careful monitoring during recovery.
  • Signs of respiratory obstruction will persist if concurrent upper respiratory disorders have not been managed properly.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Animals with brachycephalic airway syndrome which have not progressed to severe laryngeal collapse are usually significantly improved provided that other concurrent anatomical abnormalities (eg elongated soft palate Soft palate: elongated) are addressed, animal weight is controlled and any possible gastro-esophageal reflux is treated medically or surgically (eg hiatal hernia Hiatal hernia).

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Liu N C, Oechtering G U, Adams V J et al (2017) Outcomes and prognostic factors of surgical treatments for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in 3 breeds. Vet Surg 46 (2), 271–280 PubMed.
  • Mielke B, Lam R & Ter Haar G (2017) Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Tympanic Bulla Shape And Position In Brachycephalic Breeds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 58 (5), 552-558 PubMed.
  • Rutherford L, Beever L, Bruce M et al (2017) Assessment of Computed Tomography Derived Cricoid Cartilage and Tracheal Dimensions to Evaluate Degree of Cricoid Narrowing in Brachycephalic Dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 58 (6), 634-646 PubMed.
  • Heidenreich D, Gradner G, Kneissl S et al (2016) Nasopharyngeal dimensions from computed tomography of pugs and French bulldogs with brachycephalic airway syndrome. Vet Surg 45 (1), 83-90 PubMed.
  • Oechtering G U, Pohl S, Schlueter C et al (2016) A novel approach to brachycephalic syndrome. 1. Evaluation of anatomical intranasal airway obstruction. Vet Surg 45 (2), 165-172 PubMed.
  • Oechtering G U, Pohl S, Schlueter C et al (2016) A novel approach to brachycephalic syndrome. 2. Laser-assisted turbinectomy (LATE). Vet Surg 45 (2), 173-181 PubMed.
  • Pohl S, Roedler F S & Oechtering G U (2016) How does multilevel upper airway surgery influence the lives of dogs with severe brachycephaly? Results of a structured pre- and postoperative owner questionnaire. Vet J 210, 39-45 PubMed.
  • Kaye B M, Boroffka S A, Haagsman A N et al (2015) Computed tomographic, radiographic and endoscopic tracheal dimensions in English bulldogs with grade 1 clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 56 (6), 609-616 PubMed.
  • Rubin J A, Holt D E, Reetz J A et al (2015) Signalment, clinical presentation, concurrent diseases, and diagnostic findings in 28 dogs with dynamic pharyngeal collapse (2008–2013). JVIM 29 (3), 815-821 PubMed.
  • Vilaplana Grosso V, Haar G T & Boroffka S A (2015) Gender, weight, and age effects on prevalance of caudal aberrant nasal turbinates in clinically healthy English bulldogs: a computed tomographic study and classification. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 56 (5), 486-493 PubMed.
  • Schuenemann R & Oechtering G U (2014) Inside the brachycephalic nose: intranasal mucosal contact points. JAAHA 50 (3), 149-158 PubMed.
  • Schuenemann R & Oechtering G (2014) Inside the brachycephalic nose: conchal regrowth and mucosal contact points after laser-assisted turbinectomy. JAAHA 50 (4), 237-246 PubMed.
  • Roedler F S, Pohl S & Oechtering G U (2013) How does severe brachycephaly affect dog’s lives? Results of a structured preoperative owner questionnaire. Vet J 198 (3), 606-610 PubMed.
  • Palmer C (2012) Does breeding a bulldog harm it? Breeding, ethics and harm to animals. Animal Welfare 21 (2), 157-166 VetMedResource.
  • Grand J G & Bureau S (2011) Structural characteristics of the soft palate and meatus nasopharyngeus in brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic dogs analysed by CT. JSAP 52 (5), 232-239 PubMed.
  • White R N (2011) Surgical management of laryngeal collapse associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs. JSAP 53 (1), 44-50 PubMed.
  • Oechtering G U (2010) Brachycephalic syndrome – new information on an old congenital disease. Veterinary Focus 20 (2), 2-9 VetMedResource.
  • Brdecka D J, Rawlings C A, Perry A C et al (2009) Use of an electrothermal, feedback-controlled, bipolar sealing device for resection of the elongated portion of the soft palate in dogs with obstructive upper airway disease. JAVMA 233 (8), 1265-1269 PubMed.
  • Rooney N J (2009) The welfare of pedigree dogs: cause for concern. Journal of Veterinary Behaviour: Clinical Applications and Research (5), 180-186 Research Information Bristol.
  • Huck J L, Stanley B J & Hauptman J G (2008) Technique and outcome of nares amputation (Trader's technique) in immature shih tzus. JAAHA 44 (2), 82–85 PubMed.
  • Mehl M L, Kyles A E, Pypendop B H et al (2008) Outcome of laryngeal web resection with mucosal apposition for treatment of airway obstruction in dogs: 15 cases (1992–2006). JAVMA 233 (5), 738-742 PubMed.
  • Riecks T W, Birchard S J, Stephens J A (2007) Surgical correction of brachycephalic syndrome in dogs: 62 cases (1991-2004). JAVMA 230 (9), 1324-1328 PubMed.
  • Torrez C V & Hunt G B (2006) Results of surgical correction of abnormalities associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs in Australia. JSAP 47 (3), 150-154 PubMed.
  • Poncet C M, Dupre G P, Freiche V G et al (2005) Prevalence of gastrointestinal tract lesions in 73 brachycephalic dogs with upper respiratory syndrome. JSAP 46 (6), 273-279 PubMed.
  • Davidson E B, Davis M S, Campbell G A et al (2001) Evaluation of carbon dioxide laser and conventional incisional techniques for resection of soft palates in brachycephalic dogs. JAVMA 219 (6), 776-781 PubMed.
  • Lorinson D, Bright R M & White R A S (1997) Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome - a review of 118 cases. Canine Pract 22 (5/6), 18-21 VetMedResource.
  • Clark G N & Sinibaldi K R (1994) Use of a carbon dioxide laser for treatment of elongated soft palate in dogs. JAVMA 204 (11), 1779-1781 PubMed.
  • Bright R M & Wheaton L G (1983) A modified surgical technique for elongated soft palate in dogs. JAAHA 19 (3), 288-292 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Surgically correcting stenotic nares. dvm360: www.youtube.com/watch?v=16JMewx_9i0
  • Oechtering GU (2017) Diseases of the nose, nasopharynx and sinuses. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 8th edn, ed. SJ Ettinger, EC Feldman and E Cote, pp 1059-1077. Elsevier, Philadelphia
  • ter Haar G (2016a) Diseases of the nasal cavity and sinuses. In: Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 1st edn, ed. RG Harvey and G ter Haar G, pp 287-334. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London.
  • ter Haar G (2016b) Surgery of the nose. In: Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 1st edn, ed. RG Harvey and G ter Haar G, pp 449-474. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, London.


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