Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Radiography: intravenous urography

Synonym(s): IVU

Contributor(s): Barbara J Watrous

Introduction

  • Organic iodine contrast media is injected intravenously and excreted through kidneys.
  • Allows visualization of urinary tract anatomy and limited assessment of urinary tract function.

Uses

  • Investigation of:
    • Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence.
    • Anuria.
    • Hematuria or pyuria not arising from the lower urogenital tract.
    • Suspect urinary bladder disease when bladder cannot be catheterized.
    • Abnormal renal size Kidney hydronephrosis (severe) - ultrasound and shape and position.
    • Retroperitoneal swellings.
    • Suspect ureteric disease, eg ectopic ureters Ureter ectopic ureter (severe dilatation) - IVU and pneumocystogram.
  • Identification of kidneys when not visible on plain radiographs.

Advantages

  • Relatively simple procedure in most patients.
  • Non invasive.

Disadvantages

  • General anesthesia recommended.
  • Limited use in assessing renal function.
  • Contraindicated if moderately or severely azotemia.
  • Risk of anaphylactic or adverse reactions to contrast (rare).
  • Large volume of contrast may affect cardiovascular system.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Feeney D A, Barber D L & Osborne C A (1982) The functional aspects of the nephrogram in excretory urography - A review. Vet Radiol 23 (2), 42-45 VetMedResource.
  • Feeney D A, Barber D L, Johnson G R & Osbourne C A (1982) The excertory urethrogram - part I techniques, normal radiographic appearance and misinterpretation. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 4, 233-240.
  • Feeney D A, Thrall D E, Barber D L et al (1979) Normal canine excretory urogram - effect of dose, time and individual dog variations. Am J Vet Res 40 (11), 1596-1604 PubMed.
  • Kneller S K (1974) Role of the excretory urogram in the diagnosis of renal and ureteral disease. Vet Clin North Am (4), 834-861 PubMed.


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