Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Radiography: double contrast cystography

Synonym(s): DCC

Contributor(s): Barbara J Watrous

Introduction

  • Introduction of negative and positive contrast into bladder gives maximum radiographic information on bladder disease.

Uses

  • Investigation of hematuria Hematuria.
  • Investigation of dysuria.
  • Identification of non-radiodense uroliths Urolithiasis.
  • Assessment of bladder wall thickness.
  • Assessment of bladder mucosal lining Bladder cystitis - double contrast cystogram.
  • Identification of bladder masses.

Advantages

  • Relatively simple procedure in most patients.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Improved mucosal detail over pneumocystogram or positive contrast cystogram.
  • Enables identification of radiolucent foreign body or blood clots.

Disadvantages

  • Can be impossible to catheterize some patients (with obstructed urethras).
  • Risk of air embolus or bladder rupture if bladder over-inflated with air or severe hematuria.
  • Not appropriate if bladder or urethral rupture suspected.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Weichselbaum R C, Feeney D A, Jessen C R et al (1999) Urocystolith detection: comparison of survey, contrast radiographic and ultrasonographic techniques in an in vitro bladder phantom. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 40 (4), 386-400 PubMed.
  • Weichselbaum R C, Feeney D A, Jessen C R et al (1998) In vitro evaluation of contrast medium concentration and depth effects on the radiographic appearance of specific canine urolith mineral types. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 39 (5), 396-411 PubMed.
  • Scrivani P V, Léveillé R, Collins R L (1997) The effect of patient positioning on mural filling defects during double contrast cystography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 38 (5), 355-359 PubMed.
  • Mahaffey M B, Barsanti J A, Crowell W A et al (1989) Cystography - effect of technique on diagnosis of cystitis in dogs. Vet Radiol and Ultrasound 30 (6), 261-267 VetMedResource.
  • Park R D (1974) Radiographic contrast studies of the lower urinary tract. Vet Clin N A 4 (4), 863-87 PubMed.


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