Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Direct ophthalmoscopy

Contributor(s): Ralph Hamor, Claudia Busse

Introduction

  • One of the ways to examine the eye.
  • Instrument (direct ophthalmoscope) widely available in veterinary practice.

Uses

  • Examination of the eye, mainly the lens and posterior segment (vitreous, fundus, optic nerve head).
  • Part of the assessment of ocular function Eye: examination Neurological examination:
    • Dazzle reflex.
    • Pupillary light reflex.

Advantages

  • Widely available.
  • Cheap, portable instrument.
  • Gives an upright, highly magnified image, x10-15.

Disadvantages

  • Gives a very narrow field of view.
  • Ocular opacity limits view.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Heinrich C (2014) The ocular examination. In: Gould D & McLellan G (eds) BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology. 3rd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. 
  • Featherstone H J & Heinrich C (2013) Ophthalmic examination and diagnostics. In:Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn.Wiley-Blackwell. pp 533-613.


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