Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Bronchoalveolar lavage

Contributor(s): Lynelle Johnson

Introduction

  • Washing of cells from bronchoalveoli allows cytological diagnosis of respiratory pathology.

Uses

Advantages

  • Relatively rapid procedure.
  • Minimal risk above that of anesthetic.
  • Endoscopy allows visualization of respiratory tract.
  • Quality of cytological samples is generally high.

Disadvantages

  • Requires general anesthetic.
  • Requires rigid bronchoscope to obtain uncontaminated sample from alveoli.
  • technique limited by length of bronchoscope in large animals and diameter in small animals.
  • Requires additional training and expertise.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Animals with severe tracheal sensitivity prior to the procedure may experience worsening of cough in the immediate period of procedure. This can be prevented by instilling 0.5-1.0 cc of 1% lidocaine through the biopsy channel of the bronchoscope at the very end of the procedure to reduce the cough reflex.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hawkins E C & Berry C R (1999) Use of a modified stomach tube for bronchoalveolar lavage in dogs. JAVMA 215 (11), 1635-1639 PubMed.
  • Hawkins E C, Kennedy-Stoskopf S, Levy J et al (1994) Cytologic characterization of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected through an endotracheal tube in cats. Am J Vet Res 55 (6), 795-802 PubMed.
  • Hawkins E C, DeNicola D B & Kuehn N F (1990) Bronchoalveolar lavage‚Äč in evaluation of pulmonary disease in the dog and cat. JVIM (5), 267-274 PubMed.
  • Rakich P M & Latimer K S (1989) Cytology of the respiratory tract. VCNA 19 (5), 823-850 PubMed.
  • Rebar A H & DeNicola D B (1988) The cytologic examination of the repiratory tract. Semin Vet Med Surg (2), 109-121 PubMed.


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