Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Artificial insemination: surgical

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Autumn P Davidson

Introduction

  • Insemination of bitch with collected semen when intrauterine insemination indicated and transcervical catheterization not possible.

Uses

  • When intrauterine insemination is indicated due to reduced viability of spermatozoa:
    • Frozen-thawed semen.
    • Suboptimal fresh chilled semen (technique of collection/preservation/shipment or male does not chill well) or fresh semen (aged, diseases, or overused male).
  • When intrauterine insemination is indicated due to reduced fertility of the bitch.
Note that uterine biopsy is not advised a the time of insemination due to the consequences of endometrial trauma near diestrus. Uterine cytology and culture can be safely performed.

Advantages

  • Places semen closest to the site of fertilization (fallopian tubes).
  • Permits visualization of the uterus.

Disadvantages

  • Requires hospitalization and general anesthesia.
  • Invasive.
  • Multiple surgical inseminations not possible.
  • Must be performed by a licensed veterinarian in a surgical suite.
  • Ethical concerns.
Fresh semen
  • Conception rates usually >90% in fertile bitch with viable semen.
Chilled semen
  • Conception rates 80-90% in fertile bitch with viable semen. 
Frozen semen
  • Inherently less successful than fresh or chilled semen, likely due to the loss of sperm viability from the freeze-thaw process. 40-60% conception rates are typical with fertile bitches.
  • Best success obtained with intrauterine insemination, either surgical or transcervical.
  • Best success obtained with accurate ovulation timing.
  • Best success obtained with a batch of frozen semen that has been used successfully previously.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

Fresh and chilled semen
  • Good to excellent.
Frozen
  • Fair.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Thomassen R & Farstad W (2009) Artificial insemination in canids: a useful tool in breeding and conservation. Theriogenology 71 (1), 190-199 PubMed.
  • Farstad W (2000) Assisted reproductive technology in canid species. Theriogenology 53 (1), 175-186 PubMed.
  • Linde-Forsberg C, Ström Holst B & Govette G (1999) Comparison of fertility data from vaginal vs intrauterine insemination of frozen-thawed dog semen: a retrospective study. Theriogenology 52 (1), 11-23 PubMed.


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