Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Artificial insemination: vaginal or transcervical (non-surgical)

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Autumn P Davidson

Introduction

  • Vaginal insemination (VAI) of bitch with collected semen.
  • Transcervical insemination of bitch (TCI) with collected semen when intrauterine insemination indicated.

Uses

VAI

  • When a natural breeding is not possible due to male unavailability (chilled, shipped semen) or when the male is unable to physically mate and achieve a copulatory tie ("side by side" semen collection and insemination).

TCI

  • When intrauterine insemination is indicated due to reduced viability of spermatozoa:
    • Frozen-thawed semen.
    • Suboptimal fresh chilled semen (technique of collection/preservation/shipment or male does not chill well) or fresh semen (aged, diseases, or overused male).
  • When intrauterine insemination is indicated due to reduced fertility of the bitch.

Fresh semen

  • Bitch will not accept dog Failure to accept male at breeding (rule out improper timing of breeding attempt, or vaginal structure) or male unable to mount (due to physical limitations or size mismatch).

Chilled semen

  • Dog or bitch unable to travel for mating.

Frozen semen

  • Deceased or aged stud dog, foreign stud dog.

Advantages

Fresh semen
  • Conception rates usually >90% in fertile bitch with viable semen.
Chilled semen
  • Conception rates 80-90% in fertile bitch with viable semen.
Frozen semen
  • Vaginal insemination not advised due to low success rate.
  • Transcervical insemination has equal or better success than surgical (>40-60%).

Disadvantages

  • Potential selection against natural ability to mate successfully.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

Fresh and cooled semen (VAI)

  • Good to excellent.

Frozen (TCI)

  • Fair.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pretzer S D, Lillich R K & Althouse G C (2006) Single, transcervical insemination using frozen-thawed semen in the Greyhound: a case series study. Theriogenology 65 (6), 1029-1036 PubMed.
  • Thomassen R, Sanson G, Krogenaes A et al (2006) Artificial insemination with frozen semen in dogs: a retrospective study of 10 years using a non-surgical approach. Theriogenology 66 (6-7), 1645-1650 PubMed.
  • Fontbonne A & Badinand F (1993) Canine artificial insemination with frozen semen: comparison of intravaginal and intrauterine desposition of semen. J Repro Fertil Suppl 47, 325-327 VetMedResource.
  • Wilson M S (2001) Transcervical insemination techniques in the bitch. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 31 (2), 291-304 PubMed.


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