Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Abdominocentesis

Synonym(s): Paracentesis

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund

Introduction

  • In normal animal there is minimal peritoneal fluid.
  • If peritoneal fluid is aspirated → pathological quantity present.

Uses

  • Aid in diagnosis of etiology of free peritoneal fluid either palpated or visualized on X-ray.
  • Diagnosis etiology of acute abdomen, for example in cases of ruptured urinary Urethra: rupture or biliary tracts.
  • Therapeutic removal of ascitic fluid in cases refractory to diet or drug treatments.
  • Preliminary step to diagnostic peritoneal lavage.

Advantages

  • Simple.
  • Minimally invasive.
  • Performed in conscious, standing animal.
  • Positive result likely to aid diagnosis.

Disadvantages

  • Limited sensitivity (50%) because of frequent false negative results.
  • Mobility of abdominal contents means needle susceptible to occlusion.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Larkin H A (1994) Veterinary cytology - collection and examination of body cavity fluids in animals. Irish Vet J 47 (5), 211-219 VetMedResource.
  • Crowe D T, Crane S W (1976) Diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and lavage in the evaluation of abdominal injuries in dogs and cats - clinical and experimental investigations. JAVMA 168 (8), 700-705 PubMed.
  • Kolata R J (1976) Diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and lavage - experimental and clinical evaluations in the dog. JAVMA 168 (8), 697-699 PubMed.
  • Barrett R P (1975) A new method of abdominal and thoracic paracentesis in the dog and cat. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 70 (1), 76, 78 PubMed.
  • Scott R C, Wilkins R J, Greens R W (1974) Abdominal paracentesis and cystocentesis. Vet Clin North Am (2), 413-417 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Kreuth S A (2000)Abdominal distention, ascites and peritonitis. In:Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine5th edn. S J Ettinger & E C Feldman (eds). Philedelphia: W B Saunders Co. pp 1137-139.


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