Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Urinalysis: white blood cell

Contributor(s): Kathleen P Freeman

Overview

  • To detect white blood cells (WBC).
  • Increased WBCs on microscopic examination of urine sediment indicates inflammation of the urinary tract due to:
    • Urolithiasis Urolithiasis.
    • Infection.
    • Neoplasia.
    • Irritation.
    • Inflammation.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Decant supernatant.
  • Either Add 1 drop of sedistain or a supravital stain such as Sternheimer-Malbin to the sediment.
    Or Leave 0.5 ml urine in centrifuge tube.
  • Resuspend sediment by vigorously tapping the centrifuge tube.
  • Transfer one drop of sediment to a microscope slide (via a pipette) and place a coverslip over it.
  • Lower the condenser on microscope to improve contrast.
  • Systematically examine entire specimen under the lower power objective, assessing quantity and type of sediment.
  • Examine sediment under the high power objective to identify morphology of elements and to detect bacteria.

Availability

  • All veterinary practices.
  • External laboratories.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Moderate to high.

Specificity

  • Low.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Brobst D (1989) Urinalysis and associated laboratory procedures. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 19(5), 929-949.
  • McCaw D L, Fleming E J & Mikiciuk M G (1989) Interpreting the results of urinalysis - a key to diagnosing renal disorders. Vet Med 84(3), 281-286.
  • Rozengurt N, Hyman W J, Berry A, Cooper J E & Wedderburn N (1986) Urinary cytology of a canine bladder carcinoma. J Comp Pathol 96(5), 581-585.

Other sources of information

  • Kaneko J J (1997) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Harvey J W & Bruss M L (eds). Academic Press, Boston.
  • Duncan J R, Prasse K W & Mahaffy E A (1994) Veterinary Laboratory Medicine Clinical Pathology. 3rd edn. Iowa University Press, Ames, Iowa.


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