Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Cytology: nasal flush / aspirate

Synonym(s): Nasal lavage

Contributor(s): Kathleen P Freeman

Overview

  • To investigate nasal discharge, sneezing, epistaxis, or nasal deformity/mass.
  • Relatively non-invasive, few complications.
  • Indication of cells present, but rarely diagnostic except in cases of allergic rhinitis.
  • General anesthesia and intubation required.

Sampling

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Tests

Methodologies

  • Centrifugation: sample may need to be concentrated if large volume of lavage fluid used.
  • Smear.
  • Rowmanowsky stains used for air-dried smears.
  • Light microscopy.
  • Microbiological culture: if required.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Low.
  • Diagnosis rarely obtained by this technique alone, except in cases of allergic rhinitis.

Specificity

  • High specificity if pathogenic yeast or fungi are identified, or if unequivocal cancer cells are recognized.
  • Low specificity if only hemorrhage and/or inflammation is present.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • No information regarding tissue architecture.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Failure to obtain adequate sample.
  • Interpretation of commensal bacteria/fungi as significant.

Result Data

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • McCullough S et al (1999) Collection and interpretation of respiratory cytology. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 14, (4) 220-6.
  • (1998) General principles of cytological interpretation. In Pract 20, 429-437.

Other sources of information

  • Cowell R L, Tyler R D & Meinkoth J H (1999) Diagnostic Cytology and Hematology of the Dog and Cat. 2nd edn. St. Louis: Mosby.
  • Duncan J R, Prasse K W & Mahaffey E A (1994) Veterinary Laboratory Medicine. Clinical Pathology. 3rd edn. Iowa: Iowa University Press.


ADDED