ISSN 2398-2942      

Blood biochemistry: total protein

icanis

Synonym(s): TP


Overview

  • Contains albumin and globulin fractions.
  • Globulin fraction = alpha, beta and gamma subfractions.
  • Absolute changes in albumin and globulin associated with wide range of clinical conditions.
  • Electrophoresis: separation of globulin sub-fractions provides further information.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Biuret: standard method (colorimetric).
  • Calibrated refractometer: for rapid result.
  • Temperature-controlled instrument recommended.
  • Electrophoresis Serum protein electrophoresis : followed by scanning with densitometer to quantify individual globulin subfractions.

Availability

  • Biuret: widely available.
  • Refractometer: widely available.
  • Electrophoresis: commercial laboratories.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Biuret: accurate except at low levels (<10 g/l).
  • Refractometer: generally satisfactory for clinical purposes not sensitive enough to detect low levels of protein found in body fluids other than serum.

Specificity

  • Biuret method highly specific for protein.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Usually must be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical findings to reach a diagnosis.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Electrophoresis.
  • Biuret: hemolysis and/or lipemia may result in increased total protein.
  • Refractometer: usually slight to moderate hemolysis or icterus will not interfere with reading. Turbidity of lipemia interferes with light transmission and ability to obtain an accurate reading.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Referred papers

Other sources of information

  • Ettinger S J, Feldman E C, Cote E (2017) Eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 8th edn. Elsevier, USA.
  • Stockham S L & Scott M A (2002) Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Iowa State Press, USA.
  • Kaneko J J, Harvey J W & Brass M L (1997) Eds. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Academic Press, USA.
  • Duncan J R, Prasse K W & Mahaffey E A (1994) Veterinary Laboratory Medicine. Clinical Pathology. 3rd edn. Iowa University Press, USA.

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