Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Blood biochemistry: ionized calcium

Contributor(s): Penney Barber, Kathleen P Freeman

Overview

  • Calcium is present in blood in three compartments:
    • Plasma protein bound.
    • Complexed with small anions.
    • Free ionized.
  • Ionized form is biologically active.
  • Ionized calcium comprises approximately 50% total calcium.
  • Normal range for ionized calcium is very narrow.
  • Total calcium Blood biochemistry: total calcium tends to reflect ionized calcium but this may not always be true in renal failure Kidney: chronic kidney disease (CKD) or animals with abnormal protein concentrations.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Potassium chloride-saturated ion-specific electrode analysis.

Availability

  • Available at some commercial laboratories and local hospitals (although reference values would need to be established for animals).
  • In-house bench top analyzers can be purchased.
  • Hand-held patient-side analyzers available.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Simple technique.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Schenck P A & Chew D J (2005) Prediction of serum ionized calcium concentration by use of serum total calcium concentration in dogs. Am J Vet Res 66(8), 1330-1336 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ettinger S J & Feldman E C (eds) (2000) Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 5th edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders & Co.
  • Cowell R L, Tyler R D & Meinkoth J H (1999) Diagnostic Cytology and Hematology of the Dog and Cat. 2nd edn. St. Louis: Mosby.
  • Kaneko J J, Harvey J W & Brass M L (eds) (1997) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Boston: Academic Press.
  • Duncan J R, Prasse K W & Mahaffey E A (1994) Veterinary Laboratory Medicine. Clinical Pathology. 3rd edn. Iowa: Iowa University Press.


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