ISSN 2398-2942      

Phenytoin

icanis
Contributor(s):

Kyle Braund

Synonym(s): Diphenylhydantoin


Introduction

Name

  • Phenytoin sodium.

Class of drug

  • Anticonvulsant

Description

Chemical name

  • 5,5-diphenyl-2,4-imidazolidinedione.

Molecular formula

  • C15H12N2O2.

Physical properties

  • Capsules.
  • Suspension.
  • Tablets.

Uses

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Indications

  • It is used to control most forms of epilepsy Epilepsy: idiopathic in human medicine.
  • Metabolized very rapidly in dogs such that very high doses need to be given often , whereas cats metabolize the drug very slowly and toxicity easily develops.
  • These undesirable pharmacokinetc properties make it a secondary agent in veterinary medicine.
  • Its use in the cat cannot be recommended.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs



Many interactions are reported in the human literature. This list includes only those which may be of veterinary significance

Drugs increasing plasma concentration of phenytoin Drugs decreasing effect of phenytoin (absorption, effects or plasma concentration)
  • Antacids.
  • Antineoplastic drugs.
  • Barbiturates.
  • Calcium.
  • Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurans
Drugs increasing plasma concentration of phenytoin Drugs decreasing effect of phenytoin (absorption, effects or plasma concentration)
  • Antacids.
  • Antineoplastic drugs.
  • Barbiturates.
  • Calcium.
  • Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurans

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary. Tennant B (1999) 3rd edn. BSAVA, UK.
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