ISSN 2398-2942      

Isoflurane

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Introduction

Name

  • Isoflurane.

Class of drug

  • Inhalational anaesthetic.

Description

Chemical name

  • 2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane.
  • 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether.

Molecular formula

  • C3H2ClF5O.

Physical properties

  • Volatile halogenated ether liquid.
  • Pungent ethereal odor.
  • Non-flammable.
  • Non-explosive.

Storage requirements

  • <25°C.
  • Store away from direct heat and sunlight.
  • In original tight container.

Uses

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Indications

  • An inhalational anesthetic General anesthesia: overview.
  • Induction and maintenance of anesthesia for all types of surgery and in all species, irrespective of age.
    Rapid recovery following painful, eg orthopaedic procedures, necessitates appropriate and rapid attention to analgesia Analgesia: overview.
  • Assertations that isoflurane is safer in certain high risk cases should be discounted.
  • Potent cardiopulmonary depressant, and this depression is dose (vaporizer setting)-dependent.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Duration of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents is longer in isoflurane, compared with halothane-anesthetized animals.
  • Opioid agonists, benzodiazepines, acetylpromazine and nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide reduce the concentration of isoflurane required to achieve surgical anesthesia.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Duke T, Caulkett N A, Tataryn J M (2006) The effect of nitrous oxide on halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane requirements in ventilated dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anaesth Analg 33 (6), 343-350 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I (2017) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 9th edn.
  • Based on Tennant B (1999) Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.
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