Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Glucose

Synonym(s): Dextrose monohydrate, Glucose

Contributor(s): John Dodam

Introduction

Name

  • Glucose.

Class of drug

  • Simple sugar.

Description

Molecular formula

  • C6H12O6.
40% glucose solution
  • 40 g anhydrous glucose in 1 l.
5% glucose solution
  • 50 g anhydrous glucose in 1 l.
  • 50 g anhydrous glucose and 9 g sodium chloride in 1 l.
4% glucose saline
  • 40 g anhydrous glucose and 1.8 g sodium chloride in 1 l.

Physical properties

  • Clear colorless solution.

Storage requirements

  • Store at 2-25°C (shelf-life 2 years).
    Discard after single use

Uses

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Indications

  • Hyperkalemia (0.5-1.5 g/kg IV over 2 hours and insulin 0.1-0.15 U/kg IV as a bolus).
Dilute (5%) glucose solutions
  • Used for fluid replacement (primarily where intracellular and interstitial fluid losses have occurred).
  • Useful in patients with congestive heart failure.
  • In combination with insulin to treat hyperkalemia.
Concentrated glucose solutions
  • Used as an energy source. Patients requiring parenteral nutritional support will require mixtures comprising combinations of amino acid, glucose solutions and fat.
    It is recommended that specialist advice is sought prior using parenteral nutrition.
  • Used to treat hypoglycemia.
Glucose saline
  • Management of electrolyte depletion where carbohydrate store is also depleted.
  • Management of acute Addisonian crisis.
  • Urethral obstruction.

Administration

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Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.
  • Kirk, Bistner & Ford (1990)Handbook of Veterinary Procedures and Emergency Treatment.5th edn. pp 591.

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