Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Gentamicin

Introduction

Name

  • Gentamicin.

Class of drug

  • Aminoglycoside antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • Gentamycin.

Physical properties

  • Sterile aqueous solution.
  • Sterile viscous solution.

Storage requirements

  • <25°C.

Uses

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Indications

  • The aminoglycosides, as a class, are more active against gram-negative bacteria, but some staphylococcal Staphylococcus spp and streptococcal Streptococcus spp (fecalis) species are sensitive.
  • All obligate anaerobic bacteria and many hemolyticstreptococciare resistant.
  • When used for 'blind' therapy of undiagnosed serious infections, gentamicin is usually given in conjunction with a penicillin and/or metronidazole Metronidazole.
  • Aminoglycosides are more active in an alkaline environment.
  • Their use in domestic animals is limited by nephrotoxicity and, more rarely, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockade.
  • Microbial resistance is a concern, although many bacteria resistant to gentamicin may be susceptible to amikacin.
    Ineffective in low oxygen sites, eg abscesses, exudates, because oxygen rich environment is required to be effective.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs



Nephrotoxic, ototoxic or neurotoxic agents, eg amphotericin B, cisplatin, frusemide, methoxyflurane
  • Increased risk of toxicity.
Beta-lactam antibiotics, eg penicillins, cephalosporins
  • Aminoglycosides may be inactivated when mixedin vitro.
  • Synergism may occur.
Ticarcilin
  • Synergism may occur.
Non-depolarising muscle relaxants, eg atracurium, pancuronium, tubocurarine, vecuronium
  • May be enhanced by aminoglycosides.

Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Tennant B (1999)Small Animal Formulary.3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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