Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Fentanyl (parenteral)

Contributor(s): Linda Horspool

Introduction

Name

  • Fentanyl.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic.
  • Opioid analgesic (narcotic).
  • Phenylpiperidene derivative.
  • Controlled substance - Schedule II controlled drug (UK), Class II opioid (US) (requires DEA controlled drug license, ordering forms and all required documentation).

Description

Chemical name

  • N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-yl]propanamide

Molecular formula

  • C22H28N2O

Molecular weight

  • 336.47

Physical properties

  • Clear, colorless solution for injection.
  • 1 ml solution contains 0.05 mg (50 micrograms) fentanyl (equivalent to 0.0785 mg fentanyl citrate).

Storage requirements

  • Shelf-life after opening 28 days.
  • Do not freeze.
  • Store together with product information.
  • If diluted (see Interactions) use immediately to ensure sterility. Dilutions may be stable chemically and physically for 4 hours at 25°C.
  • Must meet the storage requirements for a Schedule II controlled drug Controlled drugs: legal requirements for storage, prescription and supply.

Uses

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Indications

  • Analgesia:
    • For intra-operative analgesia during surgical procedures such as soft tissue and orthopedic surgery.
    • For the control of post-operative pain associated with major orthopedic and soft tissue surgery.
    • For premedication in cardiovascular unstable patients.
  • Given:
    EitherAlone.
    OrIn combination with other anaesthetic agents, eg diazepam Diazepam or midazolam Midazolam. Often used as a balanced anesthetic maintenance protocol.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Potent anesthetic sparing substance:
    • To avoid anesthetic overdose, administer anesthetic agents until the desired effect is produced in dogs administered fentanyl
  • Potential for additive or synergistic effects:
    • Caution in conjunction with morphine or other opioid type analgesics including codein-based antitussives.
    • Caution in conjunction with alpha-2 adrenergic agonists.
  • Plasma concentrations may be increased by agents that reduce hepatic metabolism, eg Cimetidine Cimetidine :
    • Do not mix with injection fluids containing:
      • Meloxicam Meloxicam.
      • Other non-aqueous solutions.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Kukanich B, Clark T P (2012)The history and pharmacology of fentanyl: relevance to a novel, long-acting transdermal fentanyl solution newly approved for use in dogs.J Vet Pharmacol Ther35(Suppl 2), 3-19PubMed.
  • Biricik H S, Ceylan C & Sakar M (2004)Effects of pethidine and fentanyl on tear production in dogs.Vet Rec.155, 564-565.

Other sources of information

  • National Office for Animal Health. Product datasheet Fentadon 50 microgram/mL solution for injection for dogs. Datasheet.
  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Ramsey I (2011) 7th edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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