Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Epinephrine

Contributor(s): Sheilah Robertson

Introduction

Name

  • Epinephrine.

Class of drug

  • Catecholamine with both alpha- and beta-adrenergic activity.

Description

Chemical name

  • (R)-4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-benzenediol.
  • (-)-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-[(methylamino)methyl] benzyl alcohol.

Molecular formula

  • C9H13NO3.

Physical properties

  • Solution.

Storage requirements

  • Epinephrine is sensitive to light and air, and is unstable in 5% dextrose.
  • Store in a dark-colored bottle or keep in box.

Uses

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Indications

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Toxicity may occur if used with other sympathomimetic amines, eg isoproterenol because of additive effects.
  • The effects of epinephrine may be potentiated by antihistamines, eg chlorpheniramine Chlorphenamine , diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine , and thyroxine.
  • Propranolol Propranolol may block the beta effects of epinephrine, thus facilitating an increase in blood pressure.
  • Alpha-blocking agents or diuretics may negate or diminish the pressor effects of epinephrine.
  • When epinephrine is used with drugs that sensitise the myocardium, eg halothane Halothane , high doses of digoxin Digoxin , monitor for signs of arrhythmias.
  • Try to avoid the use of epinephrine in halothane anesthetized animals Halothane.
  • Hypertension may result if epinephrine is used with oxytocic agents Oxytocin.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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