Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Diazepam

Contributor(s): Laurent Garosi, Sheilah Robertson

Introduction

Name

  • Diazepam.

Class of drug

  • Benzodiazepine.

Description

Chemical name

  • 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one.

Molecular formula

  • C16H13ClN2O.

Physical properties

  • Tablets.
  • Solution.

Uses

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Indications

  • Pre-medicant.
  • Potent, fast-acting anticonvulsant and therefore the preferred initial therapy in status epilepticus Status epilepticus.
  • Anxiolytic.
  • Muscle relaxant, eg Scottie cramp Muscular hypertonicity , urethral muscle spasm Dyssynergia , tetanus Tetanus.
  • Appetite stimulant (cat).
  • Spraying (cat).
  • Anesthesia (small mammal/bird).
  • May be used with ketamine to offset the muscle hypertonicity associated with dissociative anesthesia.
  • Used in combination with acepromazine and/or opioids for pre-anesthetic medication in the critically ill patient.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs



Cimetidine, erythromycin, and omeprazole
Beta-1 antagonists
  • Duration of action of diazepam may be prolonged.
  • Hypotension may be enhanced if diazepam is used in conjunction with propranolol.
Antihistamines or opioid analgesics
  • Sedative effect may be enhanced.
Digoxin
  • The effects of digoxin Digoxin may be increased.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Platt S, Randell S C, Scott K Cet al(2000)Comparison of plasma benzodiazepine concentrations following intranasal and intravenous administration of diazepam in dogs.Am J Vet Res61, 651-654PubMed.
  • Wagner S O, Sams R A & Podell M (1998)Chronic phenobarbital therapy reduces plasma benzodiazepine concentrations after intravenous and rectal administration of diazepam in the dog.J Vet Pharmacol Therp21, 335-341PubMed.
  • Podell M (1995)The use of diazepam per rectum at home for the acute management of cluster seizures in dogs.JVIM9, 68-74PubMed.
  • Dyer K R & Shell L G (1993)Anticonvulsant therapy: a practical guide to medical management of epilepsy in pets.Vet Med88, 647-653.

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.
  • Lumb and Jones' Veterinary Anaesthesia.3rd edn (1996). Williams & Wilkins.

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