ISSN 2398-2942      

Diazepam

icanis

Introduction

Name

  • Diazepam.

Class of drug

  • Benzodiazepine.

Description

Chemical name

  • 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one.

Molecular formula

  • C16H13ClN2O.

Physical properties

  • Tablets.
  • Solution.

Uses

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Indications

  • Pre-medicant.
  • Potent, fast-acting anticonvulsant and therefore the preferred initial therapy in status epilepticus Status epilepticus.
  • Anxiolytic.
  • Muscle relaxant, eg Scottie cramp Muscular hypertonicity , urethral muscle spasm Dyssynergia , tetanus Tetanus.
  • Appetite stimulant (cat).
  • Spraying (cat).
  • Anesthesia (small mammal/bird).
  • May be used with ketamine to offset the muscle hypertonicity associated with dissociative anesthesia.
  • Used in combination with acepromazine and/or opioids for pre-anesthetic medication in the critically ill patient.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs



Cimetidine, erythromycin, and omeprazole Beta-1 antagonists
  • Duration of action of diazepam may be prolonged.
  • Hypotension may be enhanced if diazepam is used in conjunction with propranolol.
Antihistamines or opioid analgesics
  • Sedative effect may be enhanced.
Digoxin
  • The effects of digoxin Digoxin may be increased.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Platt S R, Randell S C, Scott K C et al (2000) Comparison of plasma benzodiazepine concentrations following intranasal and intravenous administration of diazepam in dogs. Am J Vet Res 61 (6), 651-654 PubMed.
  • Wagner S O, Sams R A & Podell M (1998) Chronic phenobarbital therapy reduces plasma benzodiazepine concentrations after intravenous and rectal administration of diazepam in the dog. J Vet Pharmacol Therp 21 (5), 335-341 PubMed.
  • Podell M (1995) The use of diazepam per rectum at home for the acute management of cluster seizures in dogs. JVIM (2), 68-74 PubMed.
  • Dyer K R & Shell L G (1993) Anticonvulsant therapy: a practical guide to medical management of epilepsy in pets. Vet Med 88 (7), 647-653 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.
  • Lumb and Jones' Veterinary Anaesthesia. 3rd edn (1996). Williams & Wilkins.
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