Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Chloramphenicol

Introduction

Name

  • Chloramphenicol.

Class of drug

  • Bacteriostatic antibiotic.

Description

Chemical name

  • [R-(R*,R*)]-2,2-dichloro-N-[2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide.

Molecular formula

  • C11H12Cl2N2O5.

Physical properties

  • Solution.
  • Tablets.

Storage requirements

  • Refrigeration of solution preferable between 2-8°C.
  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications



Gram-positive infections
Gram-negative infectionsAnaerobic infectionsOther sensitive organisms

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs



Anticonvulsants (pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone and phenytoin)
  • Chloramphenicol is an irreversible inhibitor of hepatic cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes and so increases the plasma levels of these drugs Pentobarbital Phenobarbital Phenytoin.
  • Recovery from the inhibitory effects requires synthesis of new liver enzymes and can take up to 3 weeks.
Iron salts and Vitamin B12
  • Decreased hematologic response may be seen Vitamin B12.
Rifampicin
  • Accelerates the metabolism of chloramphenicol, thus decreasing serum levels.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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