Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

West Nile fever

Synonym(s): WNF

Contributor(s): Leah Cohn

Introduction

  • West Nile disease is caused by the West Nile virus West Nile fever virus - a virus transmitted by mosquitoes that has been found in Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia and the Middle East, arriving in US in 1999. Similar viruses are found in all temperate and tropical areas of the world.
  • Very few mammalian species other than human and horses develop clinical illness due to WNV infection.
  • Most illness in dogs and cats is asymptomatic and in humans is usually limited to mild, flu-lke symptoms. However, humans can develop West Nile encephalitis which can be fatal. Disease may also be fatal in horses.

Can dogs and cats be infected?

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Prophylaxis

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Treatment

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Prognosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Bowen R A, Rouge M M, Siger L, Minke J M, Nordgren R, Karaca K & Johnson J (2006) Pathogenesis of West Nile virus infection in dogs treated with glucocorticoids. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74(4), 670-673 PubMed.
  • Hayes E B & Gubler D J (2006) West Nile Virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States. Annu Rev Med 57, 181-194 PubMed.
  • Karaca K, Bowen R, Austgen L E, Teehee M, Siger L, Grosenbaugh D, Loosemore L, Audonnet J C, Nordgren R & Minke J M (2005) Recombinant canarypox vectored West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine protects dogs and cats against a mosquito WNV challenge. Vaccine 23(29), 3808-3813 PubMed.
  • Kile J C, Panella N A, Komar N, Chow C C, MacNeil A, Robbins B & Bunning M L (2005) Serologic survey of cats and dogs during an epidemic of West Nile virus infection in humans. JAVMA 226(8), 1349-1353 PubMed.
  • Read R W, Rodriguez D B & Summers B A (2005) West Nile virus encephalitis in a dog. Vet Pathol 42(2), 219-222 PubMed.
  • Austgen L E, Bowen R A, Bunning M L, David B S, Mitchell C J & Chang C J (2004) Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 10(1), 82-86 PubMed.
  • Buckweitz S, Kleiboeker S, Marioni K, Ramos-Vara J, Rottinghaus A, Schwabenton B & Johnson G (2003) Serological, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical detection of West Nile virus in a clinically affected dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 15(4), 324-329 PubMed.
  • Rappole J H & Hubalek Z (2003) Migratory birds and West Nile virus. J Appl Microbiol 94 Suppl, 47S-58S PubMed.
  • Komar N, Panella N A & Boyce E (2001) Exposure of domestic animals to West Nile virus during an outbreak of human encephalitis, New York City, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 7, 736-738 PubMed.
  • Kramer L D & Bernard K A (2001) West Nile virus infection in birds and mammals. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951, 84-93 PubMed.
  • Marfin A A & Gubler D J (2001) West Nile encephalitis - an emerging disease in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 33(10), 1713-1719 PubMed.
  • Blackburn N K, Reyers F, Berry W L, Shepherd A J (1989) Susceptibility of dogs to West Nile virus: a survey and pathogenicity trial. J Comp Pathol 100, 59-66 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hannoun C et al (1969) Epidemiology of West Nile infections in the South of France. In: Bardos V et al Arboviruses of the California Complex and the Bunyamwera Group. pp 379-387. Vzdavatelstvo Slov. Akad. Vied, Bratislava.
  • ProMED Digest, 1999-2005 www.promedmail.org

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