Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Visceral larva migrans

Synonym(s): VLM

Contributor(s): Maggie Fisher, Ian Wright

Introduction

  • The term visceral larval migrans (VLM) was originally used to describe larval migrans in all species of animals.
  • The term now normally reserved for larval migrans in humans.
  • Other, related syndromes are ocular larval migrans (OLM), associated with the presence of dying larvae in the retina, covert toxocarosis and cutaneous larval migrans. OLM and covert toxocarosis are associated with Toxocara species, as is VLM normally.
  • Cutaneous larval migrans is normally caused by penetration and migration of hookworm larvae.
  • VLM and cutaneous larval migrans more common in warm climates.
  • Human disease associated with infection with Toxacara larvae is rare in the UK but there is significant seroprevalence (2% approximately in UK) and signs are non specific so it is likely underdiagnosed.
  • As VLM is used to signify specifically Toxocarainfection, this review will concentrate hereafter on infection caused by Toxocara spp.
  • Unusual to find OLM and VLM in the same patient.

Presentation

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Pathogenesis

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Symptoms

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Overgaauw P A M & Van Knapen F (2013) Veterinary and public health aspects of Toxocara spp. Vet Parasitol 193, 398-403 PubMed.
  • Keegan J D & Holland C V (2012) A comparison of Toxocara canis embryonation under controlled conditions in soil and hair. J Helminthol 16, 1-7 PubMed.
  • Wolfe A & Wright I (2003) Human Toxocariasis and direct contact with dogs. Vet Rec 152, 419-422PubMed.
  • Overgaauw PA (1997) Aspects of Toxocara epidemiology - human toxocarosis. Crit Rev Microbiol 23, 215-231.
  • Jones W L (1979) Toxocara canis. J Am Optometric Assoc 50, 450-454.

Other sources of information

  • Lewis J W & Laizels R M (1993) Toxocara and Toxocarosis - clinical, epidemiological and molecular perspectives. In: British Society for Parasitology with the Institute of Biology. ISBN0-900490-30-6.


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