Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ultrasound: echocardiology

Contributor(s): Alison Dickie

Introduction

Uses

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.

    Time required will reduce with operator experience.

Disadvantages

  • May require patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.
  • Must be familiar with normal anatomy before can reach meaningful conclusions.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate patient restraint.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Inadequate equipment.
  • Lung may interfere with image quality.

Alternatives

Equipment

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Normal anatomy (B-mode)

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Normal anatomy (M-mode)

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Schober K E & Fuentes V L (2001)Mitral annulus motion as determined by M-mode echocardiography in normal dogs and dogs with cardiac disease. Vet Rad Ultra42(1), 52-61PubMed.
  • Thomas W P, Gaber C E, Jacobs G J et al(1993)Recommendations for standards in trans-thoracic two-dimensional echocardiography in the dog. JVIM7, 247PubMed.
  • Darke P G (1992)Doppler echocardiography. JSAP33, 104-112.
  • Thomas W P (1984)Two-dimensional, real-time, echocardiography in the dog - technique and anatomic validation. Vet Rad Ultra25, 50-64.

Other sources of information

  • Bonagura J D, Miller M W & Darke PG (1998)Doppler echocardiography 1. - Pulsed-wave and continuous wave examinations. Vet Clin NA28, 1325-1359.


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