Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ultrasonography: thyroid and parathyroid gland

Contributor(s): Fraser McConnell

Introduction

Uses

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Short time requirement if experienced.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.
  • Allows ultrasound-guided:

Disadvantages

  • May require patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Gives no information on endocrine function.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate patient restraint.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Inadequate equipment.

Alternatives

  • Exploratory surgery for parathyroid tumors.

Equipment

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Patient preparation

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Technique

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Normal anatomy

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Abnormalities

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brömel C, Pollard R E, Kass P H et al (2005) Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland in healthy, hypothyroid, and euthyroid Golden Retrievers with nonthyroidal illness. J Vet Intern Med 19 (4), 499-506 PubMed.
  • Reese S, Breyer U, Deeg C et al (2005) Thyroid sonography as an effective tool to discriminate between euthyroid sick and hypothyroid dogs. J Vet Intern Med 19 (4), 491-498 PubMed.
  • Wisner E R, Nyland T G, Feldman E C et al (1993) Ultrasonographic evaluation of the parathyroid glands in hypercalcemic dogs. Vet Radiol 34 (2), 108-111 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Reusch C (2001) Ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands in dogs - a review. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 143 (2), 55-62 PubMed.
  • Wisner E R & Nyland T G (1998) Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Vet Clin NA 28, 973-991 PubMed.


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