ISSN 2398-2942      

Ultrasonography: thyroid and parathyroid gland

icanis
Contributor(s):

Fraser McConnell


Introduction

Uses

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Short time requirement if experienced.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.
  • Allows ultrasound-guided:

Disadvantages

  • May require patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Gives no information on endocrine function.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate patient restraint.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Inadequate equipment.

Alternatives

  • Exploratory surgery for parathyroid tumors.

Equipment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Patient preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Technique

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Normal anatomy

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Abnormalities

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brömel C, Pollard R E, Kass P H et al (2005) Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland in healthy, hypothyroid, and euthyroid Golden Retrievers with nonthyroidal illness. J Vet Intern Med 19 (4), 499-506 PubMed.
  • Reese S, Breyer U, Deeg C et al (2005) Thyroid sonography as an effective tool to discriminate between euthyroid sick and hypothyroid dogs. J Vet Intern Med 19 (4), 491-498 PubMed.
  • Wisner E R, Nyland T G, Feldman E C et al (1993) Ultrasonographic evaluation of the parathyroid glands in hypercalcemic dogs. Vet Radiol 34 (2), 108-111 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Reusch C (2001) Ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands in dogs - a review. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 143 (2), 55-62 PubMed.
  • Wisner E R & Nyland T G (1998) Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Vet Clin NA 28, 973-991 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code