Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ultrasonography: testes

Contributor(s): Alison Dickie

Introduction

Uses

  • Identification of non-palpable testicular lesions.
  • Investigation of:
    • Palpable testicular masses.
    • Small or large testicle.
  • Location of retained testicles in cryptorchids Testicle: cryptorchidism Testis: cryptorchid (abdominal) - ultrasound Testis: cryptorchid (scrotal) - ultrasound.

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Short time requirement.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.
  • Allows ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate or biopsy to be performed.
    Time required will reduce with operator experience.

Disadvantages

  • May require patients coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate restraint of patient.
  • Operator inexperience.

Alternatives

  • Plain or contrast radiography.

Equipment

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Patient preparation

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Technique

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Normal Anatomy

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Abnormalities

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • England G C (1995) Ultrasonographic diagnosis of non-palpable Sertoli cell tumours in infertile dogs. J Small Anim Pract 36(11), 476-480 PubMed.
  • Johnston G R et al (1991) Ultrasonographic features of testicular neoplasia in dogs - 16 cases (1980-1988). JAVMA 198(10), 1779-1784 PubMed.
  • Johnston G R et al (1991) Diagnostic imaging of the male canine reproductive organs. Methods and limitations. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 21(3), 553-89 (Review) PubMed.
  • Bird K et al(1983) Ultrasonography in testicular torsion. Radiology 147(2), 527-534 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • England G C W (1995) Small Animal Reproductive Ultrasonography. In: Veterinary Ultrasonography. Ed: Goddard P J. CAB International, Cambridge. pp 55-85.


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