Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ultrasonography: prostate

Contributor(s): Alison Dickie

Introduction

Uses

  • Investigation of:
    • Dysuria.
    • Hematuria Hematuria.
    • Stranguria.
    • Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence.
    • Palpable or radiographic prostatic enlargement.
    • Palpable or radiographic caudal abdominal mass.

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Short time requirement.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.
  • Allows ultrasound guided fine needle aspirate or biopsy.
Time requirement will reduce with operator experience.

Disadvantages

  • May require patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate patient restraint.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Patient has urinated prior to examination so bladder is emtpy.
  • Intrapelvic prostate.

Alternatives

  • Plain or contrast radiography.

Equipment

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Patient preparation

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Technique

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Normal Anatomy

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Abnormalities

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Boland L E, Hardie R J, Gregory S P & Lamb C R (2003) Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage as the primary treatment for prostatic abscesses and cysts in dogs. JAAHA 39(2), 151-159 PubMed.
  • Cruz-Arambulo R & Wrigley R (2003) Ultrasonography of the acute abdomen. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 18(1), 20-31 PubMed.
  • Kamolpatana K, Johnston G R & Johnston S D (2000) Determination of canine prostatic volume using transabdominal ultrasonography. Vet Rad Ultra 41(1), 73-77 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Green R W & Homco L D (1996) Prostate Gland. In: Small Animal Ultrasound. Ed: Green R W. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia. pp 237-250.
  • Mattoon J S & Nyland T G (1995) Ultrasonography of the Genital System. In: Veterinary Diagnostic Ultrasound. Eds: Nyland T G and Mattoon J S. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia. pp 151-159.


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