Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ultrasonography: ovary

Contributor(s): Alison Dickie

Introduction

Uses

  • Investigation of:
    • Infertility.
    • Abnormal cyclic behavior.
    • Palpable or radiographic caudal or mid-abdominal mass.

Advantages

  • Low cost.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Short time requirement.
  • Rarely requires sedation.
  • No known biological risk.
  • Allows ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate or biopsy to be performed.
    Time required will reduce with operator experience.

Disadvantages

  • May require patients coat to be clipped.
  • Normal sonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal sonographic appearance does not always indicate significant disease.
  • Similar sonographic appearance with different diseases.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate restraint of patient.
  • Operator inexperience.
  • Patient has urinated prior to examination of the uterus so the bladder is empty.

Alternatives

Equipment

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Patient Preparation

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Technique

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Normal Anatomy

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Abnormalities

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • England G C, Yeager A E (1993) Ultrasonographic appearance of the ovary and uterues of the bitch during estrus, ovulation and early pregnancy. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 47, 107-117 PubMed.
  • Rivers B, Johnston G R (1991) Diagnostic imaging of the reproductive organs of the bitch. Methods and limitations. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 21 (3), 437-466 PubMed.
  • England G C, Allen W M (1989) Real-time ultrasonic imaging of the ovary and uterus of the dog. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 39, 91-100 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • England G C W (1995) Small Animal Reproductive Ultrasonography. In: Veterinary Ultrasonography. Ed: Goddard P J. CAB International, Cambridge. pp 55-85.


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