Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Ultrasonography: musculoskeletal system

Contributor(s): Pamela Di Donato, Nele Eley

Introduction

Uses

Advantages

  • Real-time imaging technique.
  • Rarely requires general anesthesia.
  • Economic.
  • Non-invasive.
  • Fast.
  • Safe. 
  • Repeatable.

Disadvantages

  • May require patient's coat to be clipped.
  • Only the surfaces of bony structures can be examined due to the lack of penetration of bone by ultrasound.
  • View on articular structures may be partially obscured by bony anatomy.
  • Cannot differentiate between benign and malignant conditions using ultrasound alone.

Potential problems

  • Poor transducer-skin contact:
    • Inadequate clipping.
    • Insufficient coupling medium.
  • Inadequate patient restraint.
  • Operator inexperience and lack of anatomic knowledge.

Alternative techniques

  • Radiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
  • Arthroscopy Arthroscopy.

Equipment

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Patient preparation

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Technique

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Shoulder

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Stifle

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Achilles tendon

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Other conditions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lassaigne C, Boyer C, Sautier L & Taeymans 0 (2020) Ultrasound of the normal canine supraspinatus tendon: comparison with gross anatomy and histology. Vet Rec 186 (17), e14 PubMed
  • Cook C R (2016) Ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal system. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 46(3), 355-371 PubMed
  • Arnault F, Cauvin E, Viguier E, Kraft E, Sonet J, Carozzo C (2009) Diagnostic value of ultrasonography to assess stifle lesions in dogs after cranial cruciate ligament rupture: 13 cases. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 22, 479-485 1 PubMed.   
  • Schnappauf A, Gerwing M, Koehler S, Seyrek-Intas D, Kramer M (2007) Die Ultraschalldiagnostik von Kreuzbandrupturen beim Hund. Tieraerztl Prax 35, 359-365.
  • Gnudi G. and Bertoni G (2001) Echographic examination of the stifle joint affected by cranial cruciate ligament rupture in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 266-270 PubMed.  

Other sources of information

  • D’Anjou M & Blond L (2015) Musculoskeletal System. In: Penninck D & D‘Anjou M (eds) Atlas of Small Animal Ultrasonography. 2nd edn, Wiley-Blackwell.


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