Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Therapeutics: respiratory system

Contributor(s): Andrew Henderson, Lynelle Johnson, Elizabeth Rozanski, Lauren Trepanier

Bronchodilators

Methylxanthines
  • Inhibit phosphodiesterase and antagonise adenosine receptors.
  • Little effect on larger airways.
  • Stimulate respiratory center → increase tidal volume.
  • Most effective in reversible airway obstruction rather than chronic disease where pathological changes inhibits ability to induce bronchodilation, hence wide variation in response to these drugs.
  • Also, central nervous system and mild myocardial stimulants, and mild diuretics.
  • Theophylline Theophylline , long acting formulations 10 mg/kg BID.
Adrenoceptor stimulants (sympathomimetics)
  • Beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulants.
  • Aerosol administration reduces cardiac effects, but usually impractical.
    (Some cats tolerate aerosolization of beta-2 agonists very well and exhibit a good clinical response).
  • Increase ciliary beating and are mucolytic.
  • Additional properties of beta agonists:
    • Inhibit increased vascular permeability, reduces local swelling.
    • Inhibit cell activation, including stabilization of mast cells.
  • Clenbuterol hydrochloride*.
  • Terbutaline sulphateTerbutaline.
  • Albuterol Salbutamol sulfate (for inhaled beta-2 agonist)*.

Anti-allergic and inflammatories

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Mucolytics and expectorants

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Cough suppressants (anti-tussives)

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Respiratory stimulants

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Bexfield N H, Foale R D, Davison L J, Watson P J, Skelly B J, Herrtage M E (2006)Management of 13 cases of canine respiratory disease using inhaled corticosteroids. JSAP47(7), 377-382PubMed.
  • Bach J E, Kukanich B, Papich M G, McKiernan B C (2004)Evaluation of the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two extended-release theophylline formulations in dogs. JAVMA224(7), 1113-1119PubMed.
  • Miller C J, McKiernan B C, Pace J, Fettman M J (2002)The effects of doxapram hydrochloride (dopram-V) on laryngeal function in healthy dogs. JVIM16(5), 524-528PubMed.


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